It’s an extraordinary claim. But scientists say you can extend your life AND stay fit throughout old age just by a change of diet that switches on your youth gene…
For centuries man has dreamed of being immortal, fixated on tales of magic fountains that restore youth, the rejuvenating power of a vampires bite or asses milk.
More recently came claims that injections of monkey glands or hormone supplements would make us live longer.
But so far, whats actually worked are medical advances such as vaccines and better living conditions. Over the past century these have boosted average life expectancy by far more than 50 per cent, from 50 to 88.
The problem is that this longevity does not mean a healthier life. Indeed, thanks to chronic diseases such as diabetes and arthritis, were becoming like the Struldbruggs the miserable characters in Gullivers Travels who were immortal, but still suffered from all the diseases of old age.
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Gradually they lost their teeth, their hair, their sense of smell and taste. All their diseases got worse and their memory faded, so they had no idea who their friends and relations were. At funerals they wept because they couldnt die.
But now a U.S. geneticist is thought to have discovered the secret to a long life, full of health and energy. And the answer might be as simple as cutting down on carbohydrates.
Professor Cynthia Kenyon, whom many experts believe should win the Nobel Prize for her research into ageing, has discovered that the carbohydrates we eat from bananas and potatoes to bread, pasta, biscuits and cakes directly affect two key genes that govern youthfulness and longevity.
She made her remarkable breakthrough after studying roundworms, specifically the C.elegans, a worm just a millimetre in size that lives in soil in temperate climates all over the world.
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By tweaking some of their genes she has been able to help these worms live up to six times longer than normal. Not only that, but we also know how to make them stay healthy all that time as well, she told an audience at the Wellcome Collection in London earlier this month.
So, what do worms have to do with us?
A great deal, it seems. Professor Kenyons work has been successfully repeated in labs around the world the genes she found controlling ageing in worms do the same thing in rats and mice, probably monkeys, and there are signs they are active in humans, too.
This work has revolutionised our understanding of ageing, explains Jeff Holly, professor of clinical sciences at Bristol University.
Ten years ago we thought ageing was probably the result of a slow decay, a sort of rusting, he says. But Professor Kenyon has shown that its not about wear and tear, but instead it is controlled by genes. That opens the possibility of slowing it down with drugs.
So how does a worm hold the key to human ageing?
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At 18 days old the average roundworm is flabby, sluggish and wrinkled. Two days later it will probably be dead.
However, Professor Kenyon, based at the University of California, San Francisco, found that damping down the activity of just one of their genes had a dramatic effect.
Instead of dying at about 20 days, our first set of mutant worms carried on living to more than 40 days, she says.
And they werent sluggish and worn out they behaved like youngsters. It was a real shock. In human terms it was the equivalent of talking to someone you thought was about 30 and finding they were actually 60.
With more sophisticated genetic manipulation, she now has some worms that have lived for an astonishing 144 days. An increase of that proportion would allow humans to live to 450.
Scientists already knew how to make laboratory animals live longer and healthier lives you just cut back their calories to about three-quarters of their normal amount.
Its not a practical solution for humans, because you feel cold and hungry all the time.
But what Professor Kenyon found out was why drastically reducing calories has such a remarkable effect.
She discovered that it changed the way two crucial genes behaved. It turned down the gene that controls insulin, which in turn switched on another gene, which acted like an elixir of life.
October 28, 2010