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Its always a good idea to have a used car youre thinking about buying checked out by a mechanic before you buy it. But you dont have to be a mechanic to do a few basic checks yourself checks that can uncover red flags about the cars condition and prior treatment. Find several of these, and you can save yourself the trouble of paying a mechanic to dig deeper because you already know the cars probably a stinker. For example:
Most people know to pull the dipstick to check the condition of the engine oil. Black oil or a tarnished dipstick indicates few and far between oil changes, which suggests rough treatment of the engine. But keep in mind that its fairly easy (and inexpensive) for a seller/dealer to change a vehicles oil just before putting it on the market. And its not hard, either, to wipe off/clean off a tarnished dipstick to make it look like new and give you the impression the car was well-maintained. And it may have been. But you want further confirmation.
Brake/clutch fluid check
An oil change is easy; flushing out the brake lines/master cylinder (and clutch slave cylinder in manual transmission-equipped cars) isnt. Its also both important routine maintenance and if not done a strong indication the car wasnt well-cared-for.
Fortunately, checking is easy. First, find the brake master cylinder. It is usually mounted on the firewall, drivers side. It will typically have a plastic/translucent reservoir and a screw on (or pry off) lid. Open the lid and look inside. If the brake fluid is other than a light honey-color it is probably contaminated and the entire system is due for a flush at the very least (not cheap, by the way). If the fluid is dark, its a big red flag. Its probably very old and very contaminated. This not only suggests poor maintenance, it increases the chances youre facing costly repairs if you buy the car. Failure to regularly change out the brake fluid can ruin the ABS pump (in cars with ABS brakes, which is almost every late-model car) among other big ticket items. Watch out. The same goes for the clutch fluid reservoir, which is usually mounted somewhere near the brake master cylinder. All modern cars with manual transmissions have hydraulically assisted clutches. The system uses brake fluid and it must be changed out regularly, too for the same reasons. Look in the reservoir. If it is dark/dirty looking, at minimum, the fluid will need to be flushed/replaced with fresh fluid. And its entirely possible more work and more expense will be involved.
Heres another good place to search for clues as to a cars prior life and for possible red flags. With the engine cold (be sure!) open the radiator cap and take a look in there. The coolant should be bright green (or red-orange, in some cases) but never brown or (much worse) oily. Brown coolant indicates old coolant that should have been replaced and wasnt replaced; oily coolant indicates engine problems and is your cue to say thanks for your time and walk way.
Like engine oil, though, it is fairly easy to change coolant prior to sale. You want to look a little deeper. Specifically, you want to look inside the radiator at the lattice structure that the coolant flows through. Assuming the coolant is not opaque (and if its fresh it should not be) you should be able to clearly see the first few rows of the internal coolant passages. These should be free of scale and build-up. If they appear clogged up, even partially, the radiator may need to be replaced and the car may have been running hot, which amounts to abusive treatment. Red flag. At the very least, youll want your mechanic to give the entire cooling system a complete work-up before you commit to buying.
Transmission fluid check
Find the dipstick for the automatic transmission and pull it out. It usually has a red handle or is otherwise marked. The fluid should be translucent reddish (typically; there are other colors but the colors are never black or brown) and not smell burned. Here, too, it is possible the fluid was changed out just prior to putting the car on the market. But its something you want to check anyhow because if the fluid is brown or black then you know the cars not for you unless youre ok with the high likelihood it will need a new/rebuilt transmission in the near future and on your nickle. If the fluid looks and smells ok, you can further ease your mind by getting in, starting the engine and taking note of what happens when you move the gear selector from Park to Drive and then from Drive to Reverse. The transmission should engage almost immediately. If there is any significant lag between the time you move the gear selector from one range to the next and engagement of the gear chosen, its a red flag. Take the car for a drive. There should be no sensation of slippage as you accelerate and each gear change should be positive and free of any clunking or other obviously not-normal sounds. Get out on the open road and floor the gas pedal. This is an important test of normal transmission function. The unit should shift down to the next lowest gear and the car should accelerate normally. If there is any hesitation, or (worse) the engine seems to rev but the car doesnt seem to be responding , youll want to make sure an expert mechanic gives the transmission a very close once-over before any money changes hands.
It is harder to immediately notice evidence of a prior wreck these days because of much better color-matching by auto body shops. However, there are still often clues, especially signs of respray (overspray) underneath the car, or in the inner fenders, around weatherstripping and exterior trim/badges which are often not removed before a car is painted but just masked over. Closely eyeball each fender, each part of the car, for signs of respray and if you find any, ask the seller about it. It might have been a minor fender bender and so no big deal. But if it was a major accident, its possible the car has leaks or squeaks or problems much worse than that. Either way, you want to know whats up before you come to terms. Its another thing to mention to your mechanic, if it gets to that point.
You want to be sure the seller has a clear title to the vehicle and ideally, that the title is in the sellers name (if its a private party sale). Not all curbstoners people who sell used cars on their own, but who are not dealers are shady. But some are and its good reason to be wary. Generally, be on your guard if the seller is selling it for a friend. Reason? In the event theres some problem, youve got less recourse than you would otherwise because the seller wasnt legally the previous owner. Also, curbstoners are pros. So are dealers, of course. But dealers are more restrained by dint of being more accountable. They have a physical storefront, a formal business. The curbstoner you just bought that lemon from can easily just vanish and leave you holding said lemon.
So, be careful.
Even better, be suspicious.