The Myth of the Wasted Vote

I was surprised to see a long-term Libertarian’s car sporting a
Kerry/Edwards bumper sticker. “What’s with the Kerry bumper sticker?”
I asked my friend. “Isn’t it self-explanatory?” he replied sarcastically.
“Okay, okay, I see that you're going to vote for Kerry. I just want
to know why. I thought you would be voting Libertarian.”

then proceeded to tell me that while he doesn’t like Kerry, he simply
despises George W. Bush. “You don’t want to waste your vote on somebody
that you fundamentally disagree with, do you?” I asked him. “I’ve
been wasting my vote for years by voting Libertarian,” he replied

but you will be wasting your vote this year because Kerry
is almost assured to take California. One extra vote won’t make
a difference.” I hadn’t run the numbers, but I was sure that my
friend’s vote wasn’t going to affect the California electoral vote
and, therefore, had no chance of affecting the national result.

our conversation I have run the numbers, and they are mind-boggling.
Based on these results, reasonable people may conclude that they
should never vote. But if you do decide to cast your vote, as I
have, you should vote for the best candidate and abandon any attempts
to displace the disliked Kerrys, Bushes, Clintons, Reagans, Carters,
and Gores of the world.

run the numbers, I created a Monte Carlo computer simulation model
and ran well over 300,000 simulations. My model has two pretty evenly
matched main political parties and three smaller ones that fight
over roughly ten percent of the vote total. I defined voting groups,
each with probability distributions. With these groups defined,
I ran multiple runs of the model at 5,000 iterations (5,000 elections)
each while varying the number of total voters.

turns out that your one vote, and mine too, has a probability of
swinging any evenly-matched election based on the following formula:
Probability equals 3.64 divided by N, where N is the total number
of votes cast. So for a small election, say for a homeowners’ association
with 100 members, your probability of casting the vote that determines
the outcome is about 3.64 percent (or 0.0364). Stated differently,
you’d have to vote in 27.5 elections to determine a single one.
As we move up to the state and national level, the odds fall dramatically.
With 11 million voters in California, where my friend and I live,
the probability drops to 3.3 x 10-7 (0.00000033), which
means that you’d have to vote in over three million presidential
elections to determine the winner in California just once.

course, California isn’t the whole country. California currently
has 55 electoral votes out of a total of 538, with 270 needed to
elect a president. Since 1852, when Californians first voted for
U.S. president, California has been a key swing state in only two
presidential elections. In 1876, California cast 6 electoral votes
for Rutherford B. Hayes, who beat Samuel J. Tilden by the razor-thin
margin of 185 to 184. In 1916, California cast 13 electoral votes
for Woodrow Wilson, who beat Charles E. Hughes by 277 to 254. In
either election, if California voters had gone the other direction,
the national totals would have followed. In every other presidential
election, however, the winner was determined regardless of how Californians
voted. By acknowledging that California has been a swing state in
only two of its 38 elections (5.3%), we can get to our final answer:
A voter in California would have to vote in 57.5 million elections
to determine one President of the United States.

ignores voting error and fraud, but even with them, there is still
a point at which the official vote total swings from candidate A
to candidate B. The question is whether you will cast that key vote.
And the answer is that it's extremely unlikely.

does this mean? Well, first of all it means that you’d have to vote
for a very long time – 230 million years – to swing one election and
all you’d have to show for it is a Bush in the White House instead
of a Kerry (or visa versa). If you are like me and many other voters,
you can’t get very excited about either Bush or Kerry, so your final
payoff would be lackluster, at best. For those who still think these
odds look acceptable, consider the following comparisons. You are
12 times as likely to die from a dog attack, 34,000 times as likely
to die in a motor vehicle accident, and 274 times as likely to die
in a bathtub drowning as you are to swing a presidential election.

friend thinks that his Libertarian votes have been wasted and that
his vote for a Democrat will matter. This analysis shows that his
vote for Kerry has a vanishingly small expected value. Even if he
would be willing to pay $10,000 to determine the winner in November,
the expected value (probability times value) of his vote for Kerry
is only $0.00017. Americans won’t even stoop to pick up a penny
on the ground yet every four years they happily cast votes worth
one fiftieth as much. Voting may still make sense, but the overall
satisfaction of participating in a great democracy must be compared
to the time and costs of voting. The expected vote-swinging outcome
is rounding error. In fact, if you drive to your polling place,
you are approximately ten times more likely to die in an accident
on the way than you are to swing that presidential election.

what if my friend votes for Michael Badnarik, the 2004 Libertarian
candidate? Is that vote wasted? Well, it is clear that no third-party
candidate will win the 2004 election, but my friend’s support would
certainly help his favorite political party stay in business and
therefore get noticed. While it is in business, his party will help
define election issues and could even get lucky and elect a president.
Abraham Lincoln and Jesse Ventura are good examples of third-party
candidates who were elected. Ross Perot in 1996 and 1992, American
Independent George Wallace in 1968, and Progressive Robert LaFollette
in 1924 were presidential candidates who got a large percentage
of the popular vote. More likely, as any third party becomes successful,
the Democrats and Republicans will simply adopt that party’s platforms.
The same thing happened with the Socialist party early in the 20th
century. As Milton Friedman points out, the Socialists failed miserably
with a popular vote total that peaked at only six percent in 1912.
But they succeeded in the way that matters most. Dig below the surface
and you’ll find that virtually every economic plank of the Socialist’s
1928 platform has since been written into law. The votes cast for
these Socialists certainly weren’t wasted from the point of view
of those who cast them.

one vote has the same power to affect the results whether you vote
for a major or minor candidate, but a vote for the candidate you
respect and agree with gives you the expectation of a better outcome.
If you are like me and do take the time and effort to vote, you
should put your X beside the candidate you think will be the best
president, not the one most likely to beat the guy you dislike.
The myth of the wasted third-party vote is just that – a myth.
If there is a wasted vote, it is the one cast futilely against the
candidate you dislike in an attempt to swing the national election.

21, 2004

L. Hooper [send him
] is president of Objective Insights, a company that consults
for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. His forthcoming book,
coauthored with David R. Henderson, is Thinking Works: Your
Inside Track to Great Results. Charley is a visiting fellow with
the Hoover Institution.