by Chris Eger Guns.com
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Shotguns have been around for hundreds of years in one form or another. The blunderbuss and the classic fowling piece, large smoothbore muskets that fired loads of shot, were popular for centuries. What we think of today as modern shotguns started in about the 1830s and over the past 180 or so years has been moved forward by five designs to which just about every gauge in current production can trace its lineage.
1. The first centerfire breechloader
Lefaucheux’s gun, a smoothbore longarm that loaded from the breech rather than the muzzle, in itself was not new. What was new was that he used a self-contained paper tube that held both the charge and the shot in one handy shell. This shell was fired from a pinfire primer in the rear that was struck by a hammer in the rear of breech. To load and reload, one simply cracked the breech open and inserted or extracted the round by hand. Once fired, the empty paper hull was removed and a new one inserted if needed.
Within 40 years, a dozen gunmakers including Remington, Colt and LC Smith had taken Lefaucheux’s basic idea and were selling single barrel and double barrel shotguns on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Today you can look at the design and see the modern hinge-break shotguns that are still in fast production. Next time you go to the skeet range, you can mutter a little thanks to old Casimir.
2. The first pump
Christopher Miner Spencer was a forward thinker. Best known for his Spencer Carbine, which gave Union Cavalry godlike firepower during the Civil War, he also invented a sewing machine, a horseless carriage and the first pump-action shotgun. In 1882 from his Spencer Arms Company, in Windsor, Connecticut, he began to sell of a 12-gauge pump action shotgun that fed 2 5/8-inch shells from an under barrel tubular magazine. The Spencer Shotgun (what else would it be called?) both fed and ejected through the top of the breech, kind of like an Ithaca or Browning of today but in reverse.
Spencer sold his patents and company a few years later and by the 1890s, Winchester and other others had their own versions on the market. Today nobody remembers Chris Spencer, but in almost every shooter’s closet, there is at least one pump-action shotgun.
3. First semi-auto
While a number of pipedream designs by lesser engineers never left the drawing board, John Moses Browning in 1898 came up with the idea of a long-recoil operated semi-automatic shotgun. Using the same under barrel tubular magazine as the Spencer with the addition of a feed spring, Browning hashed out a 12-gauge shotgun with a reciprocating barrel and bolt that cycles rearward to eject a spent shell hull and feed a new one from the magazine into the chamber. With the magazine holding five shots and the semi-auto action, the gun became known as the Auto 5. Coming just 15 years after the invention of the pump shotgun, which was in itself revolutionary, Browning knew he was on to something. After problems selling the idea to Remington and Winchester, he approached the Belgian firearms megacorporation FN in 1902 and the rest is firearms history.
In the century that followed more than 3-million FN made Auto 5s and almost as many Franchi, Remington and Savage copies came forth and established the semi auto shotgun as the definitive example of its class for generations. Browning liked the design so much that he considered it his best work, and from a man with more than 128 gun patents that included the Colt 1911, the Winchester 1894, the BAR and the Colt Woodsman, that's really saying something.