Who Are the Libyan Freedom Fighters and Their Patrons?
Peter Dale Scott
by Peter Dale Scott: War,
Martial Law, and the Economic Crisis
is facing a very unpredictable and potentially dangerous situation
in North Africa and the Middle East. What began as a memorable,
promising, relatively nonviolent achievement of New Politics
the Revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt has morphed very swiftly
into a recrudescence of old habits: America, already mired in two
decade-long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and sporadic air attacks
in Yemen and Somalia, now, bombing yet another Third World Country,
in this case Libya.
stated aim of this bombing was to diminish Libyan civilian casualties.
But many, senior figures in Washington, including President Obama,
have indicated that the US is gearing up for a quite different war
for regime change, one that may well be protracted and could also
easily expand beyond Libya.1 If it does expand, the hope
for a nonviolent transition to civilian government in Tunisia and
Egypt and other Middle East nations experiencing political unrest,
may be lost to a hard-edged militarization of government, especially
in Egypt. All of us, not just Egyptians, have a major stake in seeing
that that does not happen.
article does not attempt to propose solutions or a course of action
for the United States and its allies, or for the people of the Middle
East. It attempts rather to examine the nature of the forces that
have emerged in Libya over the last four decades that are presently
being played out.
To this end
I have begun to compile what I call my Libyan Notebook, a collection
of relevant facts that underlie the present crisis. This Notebook
will be judgmental, in that I am biased towards collecting facts
that the US media tend to ignore, facts that are the product in
many instances of investigative reporting that cuts to the heart
of power relations, deep structures, and economic interests in the
region including the US, Israel, and the Arab States as these have
played out over the last two decades and more. But I hope that it
will be usefully objective and open-ended, permitting others to
draw diverse conclusions from the same set of facts.2
I wish to begin
with two ill-understood topics: I. Who Are the Libyan Opposition,
and II. Where Are the Libyan Rebel Arms Coming From?
Who Are the Libyan Opposition
Al Gaddafi behaved paranoid, it was for good reason. It wasn't long
after he reached the age of 27 and led a small group of junior military
officers in a bloodless coup d'état against Libyan King Idris on
September 1, 1969, that threats to his power and life emerged
from monarchists, Israeli Mossad, Palestinian disaffections, Saudi
security, the National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL),
the National Conference for the Libyan Opposition (NCLO), British
intelligence, United States antagonism and, in 1995, the most serious
of all, Al Qaeda-like Libyan Islamic fighting group, known as Al-Jama'a
al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya. The Colonel reacted brutally,
by either expelling or killing those he feared were against him."3
National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL)
"With the aim
of overthrowing Libyan strongman Muammar Khadafy, Israel and the
U.S. trained anti-Libyan rebels in a number of West and Central
African countries. The Paris-based African Confidential newsletter
reported on January 5th, 1989, that the US and Israel had set up
a series of bases in Chad and other neighboring countries to train
2000 Libyan rebels captured by the Chad army. The group, called
The National Front for the Salvation of Libya, was based in Chad."4
official records indicate that funding for the Chad-based secret
war against Libya also came from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, Israel
and Iraq. The Saudis, for instance, donated $7m to an opposition
group, the National Front for the Salvation of Libya (also backed
by French intelligence and the CIA). But a plan to assassinate Gadafi
and take over the government on 8 May 1984 was crushed. In the following
year, the US asked Egypt to invade Libya and overthrow Gadafi but
President Mubarak refused. By the end of 1985, the Washington Post
had exposed the plan after congressional leaders opposing it wrote
in protest to President Reagan."5
"The FNSL [National
Front for the Salvation of Libya] was part of the National Conference
for the Libyan Opposition held in London in 2005, and British resources
are being used to support the FNSL and other 'opposition' in Libya....
The FNSL held its national congress in the USA in July 2007. Reports
of 'atrocities' and civilian deaths are being channeled into the
western press from operations in Washington DC, and the opposition
FNSL is reportedly organizing resistance and military attacks from
both inside and outside Libya."6
National Conference for the Libyan Opposition (NCLO),
"The main group
leading the insurrection is the National Conference for the Libyan
Opposition which includes the National Front for the Salvation of
Libya (NFSL). The NFSL, which is leading the violence, is a U.S.-sponsored
armed militia of mostly Libyan expatriates and tribes opposed to
Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya (Libyan Islamic Fighting
"The LIFG was
founded in 1995 by a group of mujahideen veterans who had fought
against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Upon their return
to Libya they grew angry about what they viewed as the corruption
and impiety of the Libyan regime and formed the LIFG to create a
state that would show what they believed to be the true character
of the Libyan people.
The most significant
LIFG attack was a 1996 attempt to assassinate Gadhafi; LIFG members
led by Wadi al-Shateh threw a bomb underneath his motorcade. The
group also stages guerilla-style attacks against government security
forces from its mountain bases. Although most LIFG members are strictly
dedicated to toppling Gadhafi, intelligence reportedly indicates
that some have joined forces with al-Qaida to wage jihad against
Libyan and Western interests worldwide. ....
as February 2004, then-Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet
testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee that "one of
the most immediate threats [to U.S. security] is from smaller international
Sunni extremist groups that have benefited from al-Qaida links.
They include ... the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group."8
days Libyan officials have distributed security documents giving
the details of Sufiyan al-Koumi, said to be a driver for Osama bin
Laden, and of another militant allegedly involved in an "Islamic
emirate" in Derna, in now-liberated eastern Libya. Koumi, the documents
show, was freed in September 2010 as part of a "reform and repent"
initiative organised by Saif al-Islam, Gaddafi's son....
established in Afghanistan in the 1990s, has assassinated dozens
of Libyan soldiers and policemen. In 2009, to mark Gaddafi's 40
years in power, it apologised for trying to kill him and agreed
to lay down its arms. MI6 [British Intelligence] has been accused
in the past of supporting it. Six LIFG leaders, still in prison,
disavowed their old ways and explained why fighting Gaddafi no longer
constituted "legitimate" jihad. Abdul-Hakim al-Hasadi, another freed
LIFG member, denied the official claims. "Gaddafi is trying to divide
the people," he told al-Jazeera. "He claims that there is an Islamist
emirate in Derna and that I am its emir. He is taking advantage
of the fact that I am a former political prisoner."
Derna is famous
as the home of a large number of suicide bombers in Iraq. It is
also deeply hostile to Gaddafi. "Residents of eastern Libya in general,
and Derna in particular, view the Gaddadfa (Gaddafi's tribe) as
uneducated, uncouth interlopers from an inconsequential part of
the country who have 'stolen' the right to rule in Libya," US diplomats
were told in 2008, in a cable since released by WikiLeaks.
The last 110
members of the LIFG were freed on 16 February, the day after the
Libyan uprising began. One of those released, Abdulwahab Mohammed
Kayed, is the brother of Abu Yahya Al Libi, one of al Qaida's top
propagandists. Koumi fled Libya and is said to have ended up in
Afghanistan working for Bin Laden. Captured in Pakistan, he was
handed over to the US and sent to Guantánamo Bay in 2002. In 2009
he was sent back to Libya.9 US counter-terrorist experts
have expressed concern that al-Qaida could take advantage of a political
vacuum if Gaddafi is overthrown. But most analysts say that, although
the Islamists' ideology has strong resonance in eastern Libya, there
is no sign that the protests are going to be hijacked by them.10
between [Qadhafi's] security forces and Islamist guerrillas erupted
in Benghazi in September 1995, leaving dozens killed on both sides.
After weeks of intense fighting, the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group
(LIFG) formally declared its existence in a communiqué calling Qadhafi's
government "an apostate regime that has blasphemed against the faith
of God Almighty" and declaring its overthrow to be "the foremost
duty after faith in God."  This and future LIFG communiqués were
issued by Libyan Afghans who had been granted political asylum in
Britain.... The involvement of the British government in the LIFG
campaign against Qadhafi remains the subject of immense controversy.
LIFG's next big operation, a failed attempt to assassinate Qadhafi
in February 1996 that killed several of his bodyguards, was later
said to have been financed by British intelligence to the tune of
$160,000, according to ex-MI5 officer David Shayler.  While Shayler's
allegations have not been independently confirmed, it is clear that
Britain allowed LIFG to develop a base of logistical support and
fundraising on its soil. At any rate, financing by bin Laden appears
to have been much more important. According to one report, LIFG
received up to $50,000 from the Saudi terrorist mastermind for each
of its militants killed on the battlefield." 11
Britons and the French are finding themselves as comrades in arms
with the rebel Islamic Fighting Group, the most radical element
in the Al Qaeda network [to bring down Gaddhafi]. Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton admitted the risks of the unholy alliance in a congressional
hearing, saying that the Libyan opposition is probably more anti-American
than Muammar Gaddhafi. A decade ago, this very same delusion of
a Western-Islamist partnership in Kosovo, Bosnia and Chechnya ended
abruptly in the 9/11 attacks."12
Transitional National Council
"A RIVAL transitional
government to the regime of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi looks
set to win US and other international support as momentum builds
to oust the longtime dictator.
of State Hillary Clinton confirmed yesterday that the Obama administration
was reaching out to opponents of Colonel Gaddafi. She said the US
was willing to offer ‘any kind of assistance' to remove him from
who have taken control in Libya's eastern cities claim to have established
a transitional "national council" that amounts to rival rule. They
have called on the country's army to join them as they prepare for
an attack on the capital, Tripoli, where the Libyan leader retains
the Libyan leader's 42-year rule was coming to an end, Mrs Clinton
said yesterday: ‘We are just at the beginning of what will follow
"He [Omar El-
Hariri, Chief of Armed Forces for the Transitional National Council]
remained under close surveillance by the security forces until Feb.
17, when the revolution started. It was not initiated by prominent
figures of the older generation, he said, but began spontaneously
when Tunisia and Egypt inspired the youth. ‘Children of Facebook!'
he declared, in English, with a broad smile."14
in Benghazi said they have created a new national oil company to
replace the corporation controlled by leader Muammar Qaddafi whose
assets were frozen by the United Nations Security Council.
National Council released a statement announcing the decision made
at a March 19 meeting to establish the ‘Libyan Oil Company as supervisory
authority on oil production and policies in the country, based temporarily
in Benghazi, and the appointment of an interim director general"
of the company.
also said it "designated the Central Bank of Benghazi as a monetary
authority competent in monetary policies in Libya and the appointment
of a governor to the Central Bank of Libya, with a temporary headquarters
Where Are the Libyan Rebel Arms Coming From?
"Libya in turmoil: America's secret plan to arm Libya's rebels;
asks Saudis to airlift weapons into Benghazi," Independent, March
to avoid US military involvement in Libya in the event of a prolonged
struggle between the Gaddafi regime and its opponents, the Americans
have asked Saudi Arabia if it can supply weapons to the rebels in
Benghazi. The Saudi Kingdom, already facing a "day of rage" from
its 10 per cent Shia Muslim community on Friday, with a ban on all
demonstrations, has so far failed to respond to Washington's highly
classified request, although King Abdullah personally loathes the
Libyan leader, who tried to assassinate him just over a year ago.
request is in line with other US military co-operation with the
Saudis. The royal family in Jeddah, which was deeply involved in
the Contra scandal during the Reagan administration, gave immediate
support to American efforts to arm guerrillas fighting the Soviet
army in Afghanistan in 1980 ....
But the Saudis
remain the only US Arab ally strategically placed and capable of
furnishing weapons to the guerrillas of Libya. Their assistance
would allow Washington to disclaim any military involvement in the
supply chain even though the arms would be American and paid
for by the Saudis.
have been told that opponents of Gaddafi need anti-tank rockets
and mortars as a first priority to hold off attacks by Gaddafi's
armour, and ground-to-air missiles to shoot down his fighter-bombers.
reach Benghazi within 48 hours but they would need to be delivered
to air bases in Libya or to Benghazi airport. If the guerrillas
can then go on to the offensive and assault Gaddafi's strongholds
in western Libya, the political pressure on America and Nato
not least from Republican members of Congress to establish
a no-fly zone would be reduced.
planners have already made it clear that a zone of this kind would
necessitate US air attacks on Libya's functioning, if seriously
depleted, anti-aircraft missile bases, thus bringing Washington
directly into the war on the side of Gaddafi's opponents.
days now, US Awacs surveillance aircraft have been flying around
Libya, making constant contact with Malta air traffic control and
requesting details of Libyan flight patterns, including journeys
made in the past 48 hours by Gaddafi's private jet which flew to
Jordan and back to Libya just before the weekend.
Nato will only describe the presence of American Awacs planes as
part of its post-9/11 Operation Active Endeavour, which has broad
reach to undertake aerial counter-terrorism measures in the Middle
The data from
the Awacs is streamed to all Nato countries under the mission's
existing mandate. Now that Gaddafi has been reinstated as a super-terrorist
in the West's lexicon, however, the Nato mission can easily be used
to search for targets of opportunity in Libya if active military
operations are undertaken.
English television channel last night broadcast recordings made
by American aircraft to Maltese air traffic control, requesting
information about Libyan flights, especially that of Gaddafi's jet.
Awacs aircraft, tail number LX-N90442 could be heard contacting
the Malta control tower on Saturday for information about a Libyan
Dassault-Falcon 900 jet 5A-DCN on its way from Amman to Mitiga,
Gaddafi's own VIP airport.
07 is heard to say: "Do you have information on an aircraft with
the Squawk 2017 position about 85 miles east of our [sic]?"
Malta air traffic
control replies: "Seven, that sounds to be Falcon 900- at flight
level 340, with a destination Mitiga, according to flight plan."
But Saudi Arabia
is already facing dangers from a co-ordinated day of protest by
its own Shia Muslim citizens who, emboldened by the Shia uprising
in the neighbouring island of Bahrain, have called for street protests
against the ruling family of al-Saud on Friday.
troops and security police into the province of Qatif last week,
the Saudis announced a nationwide ban on all public demonstrations.
claim that up to 20,000 protesters plan to demonstrate with women
in the front rows to prevent the Saudi army from opening fire.
If the Saudi
government accedes to America's request to send guns and missiles
to Libyan rebels, however, it would be almost impossible for President
Barack Obama to condemn the kingdom for any violence against the
Shias of the north-east provinces.
Thus has the
Arab awakening, the demand for democracy in North Africa, the Shia
revolt and the rising against Gaddafi become entangled in the space
of just a few hours with US military priorities in the region. "16
rebels coordinating with West on air assault," Los Angeles Times,
March 24, 2011
the region suggest that the Saudis and Egyptians have been providing
arms. Though U.S. officials could not confirm that, they say it
Said to Arm Libya Rebels," Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2011:
military has begun shipping arms over the border to Libyan rebels
with Washington's knowledge, U.S. and Libyan rebel officials said.
small arms such as assault rifles and ammunition-appear to be the
first confirmed case of an outside government arming the rebel fighters.
Those fighters have been losing ground for days in the face of a
steady westward advance by forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar
shipments are the strongest indication to date that some Arab countries
are heeding Western calls to take a lead in efforts to intervene
on behalf of pro-democracy rebels in their fight against Mr. Gadhafi
in Libya. Washington and other Western countries have long voiced
frustration with Arab states' unwillingness to help resolve crises
in their own region, even as they criticized Western powers for
attempting to do so.
also follow an unusually robust diplomatic response from Arab states.
There have been rare public calls for foreign military intervention
in an Arab country, including a vote by the 23-member Arab League
last week urging the U.N. to impose a no-fly zone over Libya.
The vote provided
critical political cover to Western powers wary of intervening militarily
without a broad regional and international mandate. On Thursday
evening, the U.N. Security Council voted on a resolution endorsing
a no-fly zone in Libya and authorizing military action in support
of the rebels.
council, Lebanon took a lead role drafting and circulating the draft
of the resolution, which calls for "all necessary measures" to enforce
a ban on flights over Libya. The United Arab Emirates and Qatar
have taken the lead in offering to participate in enforcing a no-fly
zone, according to U.N. diplomats.
officials in Benghazi, meanwhile, have praised Qatar from the first
days of the uprising, calling the small Gulf state their staunchest
ally. Qatar has consistently pressed behind the scenes for tough
and urgent international action behind the scenes, these officials
fly prominently in rebel-held Benghazi. After pro-Gadhafi forces
retook the town of Ras Lanuf last week, Libyan state TV broadcast
images of food-aid packages bearing the Qatari flag.
The White House
has been reluctant to back calls from leaders in Congress for arming
Libya's rebels directly, arguing that the U.S. must first fully
assess who the fighters are and what policies they will pursue if
they succeeded in toppling Col. Gadhafi. U.S. officials believe
the opposition includes some Islamist elements. They fear that Islamist
groups hostile to the U.S. could try to hijack the opposition and
take any arms that are provided.
weapons transfers began ‘a few days ago' and are ongoing, according
to a senior U.S. official. ‘There's no formal U.S. policy or acknowledgement
that this is going on,' said the senior official. But ‘this is something
we have knowledge of.'
Calls to Egypt's
foreign ministry and the spokesman for the prime minister seeking
comment went unanswered. There is no means of reaching Egypt's military
for comment. An Egyptian official in Washington said he had no knowledge
of weapon shipments.
The U.S. official
also noted that the shipments appeared to come "too little, too
late" to tip the military balance in favor of the rebels, who have
faced an onslaught from Libyan forces backed by tanks, artillery
"We know the
Egyptian military council is helping us, but they can't be so visible,"
said Hani Souflakis, a Libyan businessman in Cairo who has been
acting as a rebel liaison with the Egyptian government since the
getting through," said Mr. Souflakis, who says he has regular contacts
with Egyptian officials in Cairo and the rebel leadership in Libya.
"Americans have given the green light to the Egyptians to help.
The Americans don't want to be involved in a direct level, but the
Egyptians wouldn't do it if they didn't get the green light."
and rebel leaders in Libya said the U.S. has wanted to avoid being
seen as taking a leadership role in any military action against
Mr. Gadhafi after its invasions of Iraq and Afganistan fueled anger
and mistrust with Washington throughout the region.
But the U.S.
stated clearly it wants Mr. Gadhafi out of power and has signaled
it would support those offering help to the rebels militarily or
for the rebel government in Benghazi said arms shipments have begun
arriving to the rebels but declined to specify where they came from.
committee is purchasing arms and arming our people. The weapons
are coming, but the nature of the weapons, the amount, where it's
coming from, that has been classified," said the spokesman, Mustafa
The U.S. official
said Egypt wanted to keep the shipments covert. In public, Egypt
has sought to maintain a neutral stance toward the rebel uprising
in Libya. Egypt abstained during the Arab League's vote calling
for the U.N. to impose a no-fly zone on Mr. Gadhafi, according to
people familiar with the internal Arab League deliberations.
thousands of Egyptian laborers are believed to still be in Libya.
On the other
hand, the Egyptian military's covert support for the rebels suggests
that it has calculated that Mr. Gadhafi is unlikely to remain in
power, at least in the eastern half of the country, and therefore
Egypt is eager to begin to build good relations with the rebels.
in the past 24 hours appeared to make some progress fending off
pro-Gadhafi forces' assaults and have rolled out new weapons for
the first time since the uprising began last month. Among them are
rebel tanks that have taken up positions on the front lines in recent
days. Rebels also launched fighter-jet attacks on government positions
on Wednesday for the first time so far.
The tanks and
fighter jets are believed to have been among the weapons seized
by rebels from defected units of the Libyan army in the eastern
half of the country, but they have received spare parts or trained
mechanics from outside the country to help them deploy them, some
rebel officials have speculated.
and Adam Entous contributed to this article.18
"Egypt Arms Libyan Rebels As Gaddafi's Conquest Continues," NeonTommy
Annenberg Digital News, March 17, 2011:
from Egypt's military have begun flowing across the border into
Libya with U.S. knowledge, Libyan rebels and U.S. officials said
Made up mostly
of small arms, such as assault rifles and ammunition, the shipments
are the first confirmed reports of an outside government supporting
rebel fighters with weapons. Rebels have been loosing ground for
days against pro-Gaddafi forces aiming to end the conflict before
foreign intervention plans are finalized.
U.N. approved a "no-fly zone" over Libya late Thursday, rebel forces
fear that any planned foreign intervention would be too little to
of arms indicated an unusually bold response by an Arab nation intervening
in a conflict outside its borders. There have also been rare public
decrees for the West to intervene in the conflict the Arab
League voted 23-0 last week encouraging the U.N. to impose the "no-fly
zone" over Libya.
In spite of
reports of arms flowing across the Egyptian boarder, Egyptian Foreign
Ministry spokeswoman Menha Bakhoum told Reuters that Egypt would
not be involved in any military intervention in neighboring Libya.
not be among those Arab states. We will not be involved in any military
intervention. No intervention period," Bakhoum said.
responding to comments by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton,
who said Thursday that discussions were on the table regarding Arab
involvement in U.S. and European intervention in the conflict.
said repeatedly that the U.S. desires involvement from a neighboring
Arab nation in any planned intervention.
A Libyan rebel
government spokesman in Benghazi, Mustafa al-Gherryani, said rebels
have begun receiving arms shipments from neighboring nations, however
he declined to reveal their origin.
committee is purchasing arms and arming our people. The weapons
are coming, but the nature of the weapons, the amount, where it's
coming from, that has been classified," he said.19
"Mideast Revolutions and 9-11 Intrigues Created in Qatar," New America
Media, March 1, 2011
"It may puzzle
and perhaps dismay young protesters in Benghazi, Cairo and Tunisia
that their democratic hopes are being manipulated by an ultra-conservative
Arab elite which has underhandedly backed a surge of militant Islamist
radicals across North Africa. Credible U.S. intelligence reports
have cited evidence pointing to Qatar's long-running support for
the Muslim Brotherhood, Al Qaeda and jihadist fighters returning
The links to
Qatar uncovered by anti-terrorism investigators in the wake of 9-11
need to be reexamined now that the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group
(LIFG), an on-and-off affiliate of Al Qaeda, has seized armories
across half of the North African country. Libya's well-stocked arsenals
contain high-power explosives, rocket launchers and chemical weapons.
LIFG is on the State Department's terrorist list.
according to a U.S. intelligence official cited by CNN, is the probable
loss of chemical weapons. The Federation of American Scientists
reports that, as of 2008, only 40 percent of Libya's mustard gas
was destroyed in the second round of decommissioning. Chemical canisters
along the Egyptian border were yet to be retrieved and are now presumably
in the hands of armed militants.
letting slip that the earliest Libyan protests were organized by
the LIFG, Al Jazeera quickly changed its line to present a heavily
filtered account portraying the events as ‘peaceful protests'. To
explain away the gunshot deaths of Libyan soldiers during the uprising,
the Qatar-based network presented a bizarre scenario of 150 dead
soldiers in Libya having been executed by their officers for ‘refusing
to fight'. The mysterious officers then miraculously vacated their
base disappearing into thin air while surrounded by angry protesters!
Off the record, one American intelligence analyst called these media
claims an ‘absurdity' and suggested instead the obvious: that the
soldiers were gunned down in an armed assault by war-hardened returned
militants from Iraq and Afghanistan....
to a Congressional Research Service report of January 2008, ‘Some
observers have raised questions about possible support for Al Qaeda
by some Qatari citizens, including members of Qatar's large ruling
family. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, Qatar's Interior
Minister provided a safe haven to 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh
Mohammed during the mid-1990s, and press reports indicate other
terrorists may have received financial support or safe haven in
Qatar after September 11, 2001.'
security chief, Interior Minister Abdullah bin Khalid al-Thani,
is further mentioned as paying for a 1995 trip by Khalid Shaikh
Mohammed ‘to join the Bosnia jihad.' The report recalls how after
the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, FBI officials "narrowly missed
an opportunity to capture" the suspect in Qatar. ‘Former U.S. officials
have since stated their belief that a high-ranking member of the
Qatari government alerted him to the impending raid, allowing him
to flee the country.'"20
“Defense Secretary Gates, who recently warned against any further
protracted US ground war, said on March 23 that the end of military
action in Libya is unknown and could last longer than a few weeks.
‘I think there are any number of possible outcomes here and no one
is in a position to predict them,’ Gates told reporters in Egypt”
(C-Span, March 24, 2011).
Interested readers may wish to consult my first exploration, “Googling
‘Revolution’ in North Africa.”
Lieberman, “Muammar Al Gaddafi Meets His Own Rebels,” CounterCurrents.org,
March 9, 2011.
Joel Bainerman, Inside
the Covert Operations of the CIA & Israel's Mossad (New
York: S.P.I. Books, 1994), 14.
Keeble, “The Secret War Against Libya,” MediaLens, 2002.
and Empire in North Africa. NATO Invasion of Libya Underway,"
By Keith Harmon Snow, 2 March 2011.
Hassan, “U.S. Love Affair with Murderous Dictators and Hate for
Democracy.” Axis of Logic, Mar 17, 2011.
Center for Defense Information, “In the Spotlight: The Libyan Islamic
Fighting Group (LIFG),” January 18, 2005
Qadhafi was concerned about Al Qaeda terrorism in Libya, and in
1996 Libya became the first government to place Osama bin Laden
on Interpol’s Wanted List (Rohan Gunaratna, Inside
Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror [New York: Columbia UP,
2002], 142). Thereafter American and Libyan intelligence collaborated
closely for some years against Al Qaeda. Beginning when?
Black, “Libya rebels rejects Gaddafi's al-Qaida spin,” Guardian,
March 1, 2011.
Gambill, "The Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), Jamestown Foundation,"
Terrorism Monitor, May 5, 2005,; citing Al-Hayat (London), 20 October
1995 [“communiqué”]; "The Shayler affair: The spooks, the Colonel
and the jailed whistle-blower," The Observer (London), 9 August
1998; Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasquié, Ben Laden: La
Verite interdite (Bin Ladin: The Forbidden Truth). Cf. also Annie
Lies and Whistleblowers: MI5, MI6 and the Shayler Affair
(Book Guild Publishing, 2005) [Shayler].
Shimatsu, “Attack on Libya: Why Odyssey Dawn Is Doomed,” New
America Media, March 20, 2011.
reaches out to Libyan insurgents,” The Australian, March 1,
a onetime friend to Gadhafi became his rival,” Globe and Mail
[Toronto], March 4, 2011.
Rebel Council in Benghazi Forms Oil Company to Replace Qaddafi’s,”
Bloomberg, March 22, 2011.
Fisk, “America's secret plan to arm Libya's rebels,” Independent,
March 7, 2011.
“Libya rebels coordinating with West on air assault,” Los Angeles
Times, March 24, 2011.
Said to Arm Libya Rebels,” Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2011,
Gottlieb, “Egypt Arms Libyan Rebels As Gaddafi's Conquest Continues,”
NeonTommy Annenberg Digital News, March 17, 2011.
Shimatsu, “Mideast Revolutions and 9-11 Intrigues Created in Qatar,”
New America Media, March 1, 2011. The al-Thani family’s protection
of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed is confirmed by former CIA officer Robert
Baer (Los Angeles Times, March 23, 2003). Cf. Robert Baer, Sleeping
with the Devil (New York: Crown, 2003); Peter Lance, Triple
Cross (New York: Regan/HarperCollins, 2006), 234-37.
from Global Research.
Dale Scott, a former Canadian diplomat and English Professor at
the University of California, Berkeley, is the author of Drugs
Oil and War, The
Road to 9/11, and The
War Conspiracy: JFK, 9/11, and the Deep Politics of War.
His book, Fueling America's War Machine: Deep Politics and the
CIAs Global Drug Connection is in press, due Fall 2010
from Rowman & Littlefield.
© 2011 Peter