AS IF ANTS ARE CRAWLING ON YOU
PROBABLE CAUSE: Menopause. Changes in hormone levels can produce an itchy skin condition called formication.
Sufferers have the phantom sensation of insects crawling on their skin, though its not clear why. One theory is that fluctuating hormone levels may affect nerve endings in the skin.
TREATMENT: Increasing your intake of omega-3 fatty acids (found in oily fish) can help improve skin condition, and if the skin is less dry it may be less prone to itching, says Dr Tabi Leslie, a dermatologist at St Thomas and Barnet hospitals in London.
Drinking plenty of water to keep the skin hydrated may help reduce irritation, as can avoiding smoking, excess sun exposure, stress and lack of sleep.
Hormone replacement therapy may also help. The condition should settle after the menopause, says Peter Bowen Simpkins, medical director of the London Womens Clinic.
FIERY ITCH AND RED, WEEPY SKIN
PROBABLE CAUSE: Allergy. Often referred to as allergic contact dermatitis, this occurs when the skin reacts to something touching it.
Common triggers include nickel jewellery, rubber gloves or a buckle from a belt.
It can also be caused by irritants such as chemicals in soaps or perfumes.
Allergens produce an immune response in the skin, which triggers the fiery itch.
In severe cases the skin can become scaly with painful cracks developing on the fingers, says Dr Andrew Wright, a dermatologist at Bradford Hospitals NHS Trust.
People with a tendency to asthma, eczema and hay fever develop contact dermatitis more easily than others, possibly due to a compromised immune system, and this tendency can run in families.
TREATMENT: The first step is to identify the cause, says Dr Wright, so monitor what you use when you get an outbreak. Patch testing may help.
Here, small pieces of sticky tape each containing a small sample of a potentially allergic substance are applied to the skin for 48 hours and any reaction is then analysed.
Moisturise regularly as this helps maintain the skins protective barrier and use hypoallergenic shampoo and soap because this is free from common allergens.
PRICKLY, INTENSE ITCHINESS
Other symptoms: Sudden rash or mild red patches.
PROBABLE CAUSE: Eczema. One in five people will be affected by eczema (also known as dermatitis) at some time in their lives.
The condition is caused by an over-reaction of the immune system. Atopic eczema tends to be hereditary and many sufferers will also have hay fever and asthma, conditions linked to a compromised or overactive immune system function.
Prime sites are behind the knees, elbows, side of neck or around the eyes and ears as these areas become hot and clammy.
Pompholyx eczema affects one in 20 people, and produces a burning itching along with tiny blisters on the sides of the fingers, palms and feet.
The cause isnt known, but it can be triggered by perfume, athletes foot or stress.
TREATMENT: Keep the skin well moisturised because dry skin is more easily irritated, says Dr Leslie. Use creams free from chemicals such as parabens. Hydrocortisone can also be soothing.
A new treatment, Tacrolimus ointment, is available on prescription for those with moderate to severe eczema, and helps calm an overactive immune system.
An oatmeal bath can help, too, says GP Dr Paul Griffiths of the Blemish Clinic in Manchester. Oats contain anti-inflammatory compounds that can reduce itching.
ITCHY RED-BROWN RASH
PROBABLE CAUSE: Medication. Some drugs, such as penicillin and other antibiotics, can cause itchy skin, says Dr Wright.
This is because the drugs are treated as a foreign chemical in the body and produce an allergic reaction within hours.
TREATMENT: Speak to your doctor about changing your medication.
Desensitisation can be used for penicillin allergy if the drug has to be taken regularly.