Is Homeland Security?
Info from government websites.....
know we are all interested in finding out more about the new Homeland
the interest at getting at the roots and facts of the nature of
the new Homeland Security Agency/Department/Office(/whatever), and
to get past the rhetoric, I only used official government or quasi-governmental
websites to do a little research presented below.
on this research presented, it is easy to see that the concept of
Homeland Security has been in the works from as early as 1995 with
President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directives (see below).
earliest reference to the term "Homeland Defense" or "Homeland Security"
that I could find was in an article on the NYU.edu website from
1997. It is not included below.
the days after the 9/11 attack, the president began "Operation Noble
Eagle" which was the callup of 35,500 army reservists. This operation
will be coordinated by the new Office of Homeland Security.
you will note by the testimony of Adj. Major Gen. Cugno of the Connecticut
National Guard (below), it was his opinion that homeland defense
be conducted by the National Guard, controlled by the nation's governors,
and not via federal centralized control.
also note that the Jan 8, 2001 revised US Army Field Manaual (see
below) on Physical Security, "Homeland Defense is the military's
role in the United States (US) government's principal task of protecting
its territory and citizens."
clearly as we see by the revised US Army field manual, by the army
reserve callup in Operation Noble Eagle, and the establishment of
the Department of Homeland Security, that homeland security operations
are federally coordinated against the recommendation of the
National Guard General who said (see below) that "Proponents of
a strong federal role clearly demonstrated a lack of understanding
of statehood and political realities."
Cugno also noted that use of the US Army, and not the national guard,
internally within the US violates Posse Comitatus, unless expressly
and explicitly enabled by legislation from Congress. (see his testimony
also find below, strategic design plans for a Homeland Defence Agency
from the Center for Strategic International Studies. (The CSIS President
and CEO is former Deputy Secretary of Defence, John J. Hamre, and
Board of Trustees Chairman, Sen. Sam Nunn, former head of Defence
included below, information on the "National Homeland Security Agency
Act", introduced in the House on March 21, 2001 and the US Commission
on National Security for the 21st Century who authored it.
hope you find this information interesting and useful in understanding
US policy on homeland security leading up to and subsequent to the
the tragedy was used as the trigger to implement Homeland Security
and Defense policy that has been under design and consideration
for many years. (note the dates above)
that was a good or bad idea, or the concept of Homeland Security
is good or bad, is a decision left up to you. I provided as much
research using government sources that I could in any reasonable
amount of time. You can use these sources as a jumping off point
to find out more about it if you like in your investigation of this
new massive expansion of government power and bureaucracy.
Commission on National Security for the 21st Century
The Hart-Rudman Commission
National Homeland Security Agency Act Introduced in the House
March 21, 2001
10. EFFECTIVE DATE. This Act shall take effect on the date that
is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act." (September
From the House Commission on Government Reform, National Security
Sub-commission, April 24, 2001 Briefing Memo
Organization to Counter Terrorism
Decision Directive 62, Protection Against Unconventional Threats
to the Homeland and Americans Overseas, May 22, 1998 (Clinton)
Decision Directive 63, Critical Infrastructure Protection, May 22,
Conference Committee Report accompanying the 1998 Appropriations
Act for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary
and Related Agencies (PL 105-119) directed the Attorney General,
in consultation with other pertinent agencies, to develop a Five-Year
Interagency Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Plan. The plan
was intended to serve as a baseline strategy for coordination of
national policy and operational capabilities to combat terrorism
at home and abroad.
Bush administration issued National Security Decision Directive-1,
Organization of the National Security Council System, on February
13, 2001. The document establishes the organizational structure
that coordinates the efforts of executive departments and agencies
in the effective development and implementation of national security
of Current National Strategy to Counter Terrorism
are concerns about the federal organizational structure to counter
terrorism. The Phase III Report of the US Commission on National
Security/21st Century (DoD sponsored) recommends the president propose,
and Congress agree, to create a National Homeland Security Agency
(NHSA) with responsibility for planning, coordinating, and integrating
various U.S. government activities involved in homeland security.
note.....it seems that the CSIS/NSSG option won out in the end...]
to Improve the Federal Response
R. 1158, National Homeland Security Agency Act .... would bring
together four agencies the Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA), the Coast Guard, the Customs Service, and the Border Patrol
and task these agencies with the mission of defending the homeland.
FEMA would be renamed the National Homeland Security Agency...
for Strategic International Studies
Note: See homeland defense strategy papers from the year 2000.]
Manual No. 3-19.30
Department of the Army
DC, 8 January 2001
Defense is the military's role in the United States (US) government's
principal task of protecting its territory and citizens. This is
accomplished by joint, interagency, and multijurisdictional organizations.
Homeland Defense includes:
domestic authorities for crisis and consequence management with
regard to weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
national-security assets (such as installations) and deploying
forces and ensuring the availability, integrity, and adequacy
of other critical assets.
and defending against strategic attacks while maintaining freedom
of action through antiterrorism and force-protection operations.
GENERAL WILLIAM A. CUGNO, ADJUTANT GENERAL, CONNECTICUT
THE HOUSE GOVERNMENT REFORM SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY, VETERANS
AFFAIRS, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FIRST SESSION, 107TH CONGRESS
COMBATING TERRORISM: FEDERAL RESPONSE TO A BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS ATTACK
23, 2001 http://www.house.gov/reform/ns/107th_testimony/statement_of_cugno.htm
homeland security becomes an additional mission, but not the only
mission of the National Guard. As we develop our nationís comprehensive
plan, National Guard forces, with nationwide span of nearly 3300
locations in 2700 communities, should be recognized as the "existing"
forward-deployed military force in this country.
Guard forces are already fully integrated into existing local, state
and regional emergency response networks.
National Guard [is] uniquely qualified to perform a fusion role
on behalf of the Department of Defense, in domestic security assurance.
Reliance on the National Guard preserves the constitutional balance
between state and federal sovereign interests, rights and responsibilities.
colleagues also stated that in defense of the scenario drivers,
the federal players found it difficult and frustrating to deal with
all the different states, with their differing capabilities and
the various powers granted in state statutes regarding civil emergencies.
The federal players wanted to operate as they always operate
with one authority and uniform rules of engagement across the nation.
of a strong federal role clearly demonstrated a lack of understanding
of statehood and political realities.
ability of the federal government to use the National Guard is limited
by the Militia Clause of the Constitution Clause. The Militia
Clause provides for the calling forth of the Militia to execute
the Laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions.
Congress empowered the President, as the Commander in Chief, to
call forth the Militia. The law, however, constrains the President
in the federal use of the National Guard, limiting the use to when
the President is unable to execute the federal law with regular
Posse Comitatus Act prohibits the use of any part of the Army, Air
Force, Navy, or Marines, including their reserve components, as
a posse comitatus ("armed force") or otherwise to execute
the laws, except as authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress.
Congress has created a number of statutory exceptions to the Posse
Comitatus Act, which fall into four major categories: (1) insurrections
and civil disturbances,  (2) counterdrug operations,  (3)
disaster relief,  (4) counter-terrorism and weapons of mass destruction."
Greenspan [send him mail]
is a project manager and consultant.
© 2001 LewRockwell.com