turns, whether it is on the broadcast news or the Internet, we are
bombarded with Swine Flu stories. Government tells us not to “panic,”
while it simultaneously engages in activities meant to spread widespread
Robert Higgs has written,
the very basis of government rests upon cultivating human fear:
who have the effrontery to rule us, who call themselves our government,
understand this basic fact of human nature (about fear). They
exploit it, and they cultivate it. Whether they compose a warfare
state or a welfare state, they depend on it to secure popular
submission, compliance with official dictates, and, on some occasions,
affirmative cooperation with the state’s enterprises and adventures.
Without popular fear, no government could endure more than twenty-four
hours. David Hume taught that all government rests on public opinion,
but that opinion, I maintain, is not the bedrock of government.
Public opinion itself rests on something deeper: fear.
If one wishes
to “test” Professor Higgs’ proposition, one needs to look
no further than the actions of the Centers for Disease Control,
which claims to be in a constant state of readiness in order to
protect us from the next pandemic. At the CDC, it always is 1918,
and an outbreak of “Spanish Flu” or something like it
is just around the corner.
A visit to
the CDC’s website shows that the
CDC has placed the latest outbreak of Swine Flu front-and-center.
News reports monitor the every word of the CDC “experts”
who are bombarded with questions about whether or not this is the
“Big One.” My sense is that the “experts,” the
media, and everyone else in the Flu chain will be disappointed when
this turns out to be another overblown “crisis” that governments
have foisted upon us right-and-left.
One must remember
that for many years, the CDC has been creating vast emergency “plans”
that are supposed to swing into action the minute that a rumor is
afloat that someone, somewhere, has the flu. Politicians and media
figures also want a cut of the action and make sure that they keep
the issue before us, telling us “what we need to know.”
we need to know is that government is the last thing we need in
our faces if there is a real pandemic. That is because governments
played a major role in creating the conditions that turned the “Spanish
Flu” situation of 1918 into a world-wide tragedy that led to
the death of millions. If government is to trot out its “war
emergency” model as the way to “protect” us from
the flu, perhaps we need to be reminded of how well that model works
– in making sure lots of people become sick and die.
don’t remember 1918 as the year the flu pandemic began; they remember
it as the year that World War I ended. This was the “War to
End All Wars,” or so it was called, when a more appropriate
title might have been the “War to Permanently Expand the State.”
More than 10 million soldiers died on the battlefields of Europe
and millions of civilians died deaths of starvation or were killed
in the crossfire.
Since war is
a tool of the state, we safely and honestly can say that the calamities
of World War I were state-created. Unfortunately, people did not
just die from bullets, artillery shells, bombs, and even starvation.
Across the globe, the war resulted in vast swaths of malnourishment
as crops were diverted from civilian populations to the huge armies
strung across Europe. At the same time, once-productive croplands
in Europe were reduced to moonscapes as the armies obliterated the
were not satisfied with the sheer amount of physical and human destruction.
Indeed, the government made things worse through lies, and nowhere
was that more apparent that the lies told by state agents in order
to “prevent panic” from the onrushing flu epidemic. As
Influenza was the source of much fear in citizens around the world.
Further inflaming that fear was the fact that governments and
health officials were downplaying the influenza. While the panic
from World War I was dwindling, governments attempted to keep
morale up by spreading lies and dismissing the influenza. On September
11, 1918, Washington officials reported that the Spanish Influenza
had arrived in the city. The following day, roughly thirteen million
men across the country lined up to register for the war draft,
providing the influenza with an efficient way to spread. However,
the influenza had little impact upon institutions and organizations.
While medical scientists did rapidly attempt to discover a cure
or vaccine, there were virtually no changes in the government
or corporations. Additionally, the political and military events
were fairly unaffected due to the impartiality of the disease,
which affected both sides alike.
the crisis in this country was the crowding of American troops onto
ships following the war’s end, which was guaranteed to spread the
sickness and help it spread when the soldiers reached the USA. On
the home front, huge war bond rallies in large cities brought people
into very close proximity with each other, allowing the flu to spread
rapidly. On one end, the government helped to create the conditions
that spread the flu; on the other hand, agents representing the
state lied about those conditions.
By the war’s
end, Germany was near starvation (and many people did starve to
death during the British blockade that lasted well into 1919), and
a half-million civilians succumbed to the sickness in that country.
It is estimated that 16 million people in India died of the pandemic.
Yet, when it
raises the prospect of a repeat of this very horror, governments
engage in more lies. We forget that life expectancy in the United
States was in the mid-50s for white males and less than 50 for black
men. In countries elsewhere, and especially in Asia and Africa,
life expectancy was much shorter. Medical care at that time was
primitive compared to what we have today, even in poor countries,
and it was not uncommon in that era for people to be exposed to
epidemics that pretty much have disappeared today.
Even with those
odds, the mortality rate during the 1918–1920 pandemic was
estimated at between 2.5 and 5 percent. We can be assured today
that not only would fewer people become sick, but even fewer people
would die. In other words, even at its worst, the current outbreak
of Swine Flu, while bad, is not going to turn into a pandemic no
matter what CNN and the CDC try to tell us.
supposedly live in an age of “enlightened” government,
yet governments in 1918 allegedly were “enlightened,”
too, and that was at the height of the “Progressive Era.”
The real problem, however, was that those “enlightened”
governments had created the very conditions that served as the tinderbox
to ignite this pandemic.
governments today seek to restrict human freedom even more so than
did governments of that era, as bad as they were. President Obama,
like his predecessor, would have no problem grabbing “emergency”
powers in order to fight this supposed onslaught of disease. Emergency
plans hatched in the bowels of the CDC bureaucracy await implementation,
which would release the inner dictator that resides in the hearts
of thousands of bureaucrats across the country.
I doubt seriously
that any plan by government can or will lessen the impact of this
current “epidemic,” if we can call it that. However, I
also have no doubt that if emergency plans are kicked into place,
it will be much easier for the government to call for further states
of emergency, with the threshold becoming lower and lower. That
we should fear much more than the Swine Flu.
L. Anderson, Ph.D. [send him
mail], teaches economics at Frostburg State University in Maryland,
and is an adjunct scholar of the Ludwig
von Mises Institute. He also is a consultant
with American Economic Services.