Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal An Annotated Bibliographic Guide

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1. Introduction

The New Deal
administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a critical
watershed in the development of the welfare-warfare state in the
United States. Precedents concerning public policy and ideology
set during that period are still with us today. However there is
much mythology and misunderstanding regarding FDR and the New Deal
found in academic and popular historical accounts. Educated readers
must sift through the volume of published works trying to ascertain
the truthfulness and accuracy of these studies. Dr. Gary North recently
pointed out that there exists no single critical analysis of this
history, written on a scholarly academic level, which treats both
domestic and foreign policies of Roosevelt's New Deal and their
consequences. While this is indeed true, there does in fact exist
many volumes in print which undertake to explore and explain this
period. This annotated bibliographic guide is an attempt to acquaint
attentive readers with this literature regarding Franklin Roosevelt
and the New Deal. It is not meant to be the final word on historical
documentary sources. Most of these titles can be found at Amazon.com
or online at Mises.org.

2. Methodology

The methodology
this guide will follow is that of Libertarian Class Analysis as
presented in such seminal works as Albert Jay Nock's Our Enemy,
The State, William Morrow and Company, 1935; Murray N.
Rothbard's Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy, Center
for Libertarian Studies, Inc., 1996; and Rothbard's pathbreaking
article, "The Anatomy of the State." (All three items
are available online at Mises.org.) An understanding of Libertarian
Class Analysis is the "litmus test" separating real libertarians
from alternative lifestyle dilettantes dabling in free market theory.
Sometimes labeled "Power Elite Analysis" or "Establishment
Studies," this examination of causal relationships regarding
the nature and scope of political power, who has it and how it is
exercised, is crucial to understanding Roosevelt's New Deal. There
are three great scholars who have mastered this mode of analysis.
Any real understanding of our subject must begin with a grasp of
their tremendous contributions to this endeavor. They are Murray
N. Rothbard, Thomas Ferguson, and Phillip H. Burch, Jr. Each of
these authors freely praised and cited each others work in this
undertaking. The central fact guiding our study of FDR and the New
Deal was stated by economist and historian Rothbard at the beginning
of his chapter, "From Hoover To Roosevelt: The Federal Reserve
and the Financial Elites," found in his A History of Money
and Banking in the United States: The Colonial Era To World War
II, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2002:

"This
(analysis) is grounded on the insight that American politics, from
the turn of the twentieth century until World War II, can far better
comprehended by studying the interrelationship of major financial
groupings than by studying the superficial and often sham struggles
between Democrats and Republicans. In particular, American politics
in this period was marked by a fierce struggle between two major
financial-industrial groupings: the interests clustered around the
House of Morgan on the one hand, and an alliance of Rockefeller
(oil), Harriman (railroad), and Kuhn, Loeb (investment banking)
interests on the other. "

Dr. Rothbard
proceeds in this chapter, and in two subsequent chapters, "The
Gold-Exchange Standard in the Interwar Years," and "The
New Deal and the International Monetary System," to further
detail this internecine warfare between the J. P. Morgan bloc and
the Rockefeller/Harriman/Kuhn, Loeb bloc for control of the U. S.
Political economy.

We next consider
political scientist Thomas Ferguson, in his Golden Rule: The
Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven
Political Systems, The University of Chicago Press, 1995. In
his first chapter, "Party Realignment and American Industrial
Structure: The Investment Theory of Political Parties in Historical
Perspective," Dr. Ferguson presents his general theory of the
dynamics of modern American politics. However it is in his second
chapter, "From u2018Normalcy' to New Deal: Industrial Structure,
Party Competition, and American Public Policy in the Great Depression,"
and his fourth chapter, "Industrial Structure and Party Competition
in the New Deal: A Quantitative Assessment," that most parallels
Rothbard and Burch. His essay, "Industrial Conflict and the
Coming of the New Deal: The Triumph of Multinational Liberalism
in America," found in Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle's The
Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930-1980, Princeton University
Press, 1990, is also must reading in this regard.

Lastly, we
turn to political scientist Philip H. Burch, Jr. Dr. Burch is the
author of the outstanding three volume series, Elites in American
History: The Federalist Years to Civil War, Elites in American History:
The Civil War to the New Deal, and Elites in American History:
The New Deal to the Carter Administration, Holmes & Meier
Publishers, Ltd., 1980. Professor Burch, by his exemplary
scholarship and meticulous research into the elite structure of
the American Establishment, has written the landmark definitive
series in the exploration of power in America. It is the third volume,
which Rothbard described as "sparkling" and "encyclopedic,"
that we focus upon here. In fact, Rothbard's Wall Street, Banks,
and American Foreign Policy, cited above, is in many ways a
condensation and amplification of Burch's pioneering research, within
his own insightful, rigorous framework of Libertarian Class Analysis.

3. Background
of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

There are multitudes
of biographies of FDR by court historian partisans, acolytes, and
apologists. However there are two contemporary critical studies
by John T. Flynn which are in a class by themselves in regards to
de-mysticification of their subject.. Flynn's Country Squire
in the White House, Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1940, placed
the author on the White House enemies list. FDR, in a vindictive
act of revenge, tried to destroy Flynn's journalistic career. The
second book, The Roosevelt Myth, Devin-Adair, 1948, published
several years after Roosevelt's death, gives Flynn the last word.
Both are must reading. Ralph Raico's brilliant LewRockwell.com series,
"Fascism Comes To America," is an illuminating commentary.

4. The Great
Depression.

Murray N. Rothbard,
America's Great Depression, Van Nostrand, 1963. The
definitive scholarly analysis of why the Great Depression happened
and the policy failures which tried to alleviate its tragic consequences.

Garet Garrett,
A Bubble That Broke The World, Little Brown and Company,
1931. The real story behind the Crash. Still a classic account.

Albert U. Romasco,
The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression,
Oxford University Press, 1969. A totally discredited and flawed
book — see Murray N. Rothbard's devastating review, "The Hoover
Myth," in James Weinstein and David Eakin's For A New America:
Essays in History and Politics From u2018Studies on the Left,' 1959-1967,
Vintage Books, 1970.

Studs Terkel,
Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression, Avon Books,
1971. A true classic! Exceptional oral history of a wide strata
of Americans caught up in the "hard times" of the Great
Depression.

Jim Powell,
FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great
Depression, Crown Forum, 2003. Powell's fine study destroys
many myths concerning FDR, the Great Depression, and the New Deal.

Amity Shlaes,
The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression, HarperCollins,
2007. This new analysis critically examines the domestic policy
aspects of the New Deal.

5. The New
Deal.

Ronald Radosh
and Murray N. Rothbard, editors, A New History of Leviathan:
Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State, E. P. Dutton
and Company, 1972. Brilliant synthesis of New Left/Old Right
analysis of the origins of corporativism in America. In particular,
see Rothbard's "War Collectivism in World War I," and
"Herbert Hoover and the Myth of Laissez-Faire;" and Radosh's
"The Myth of the New Deal," demolishing conventional interpretations
by court historians Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Carl N. Degler, and
William E. Leuctenburg.

G. William
Domhoff, The Higher Circles, Vintage, 1971. Contains an excellent
chapter, "How The Power Elite Shape Social Legislation"
on the background of Social Security and other New Deal legislation
and social-engineering programs. Much of this pioneering research
was later used by Ronald Radosh in his essay, "The Myth of
the New Deal," in the above book. See also Gregory Bresiger,
"The Revolution of 1935: The Secret History of Social Security,"
Essays in Political Economy, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2002. Available
online at Mises.org.

Garet Garrett,
The People's Pottage, The Caxton Printers, 1953. Garrett's
masterpiece is the most powerful critique of FDR's domestic and
foreign policies. He has no equal in pointing out the callous, corrupt,
and politically expedient nature of Franklin Roosevelt and Harry
Truman and their New Deal-Fair Deal schemes to regiment America
and ensnare the globe.

Garet Garrett,
Salvos Against the New Deal, The Caxton Press, 2002. Exceptional
collection of editorial essays from The Saturday Evening Post,
the publication beloved by millions during the dark days of America's
Great Depression.

Garet Garrett,
Insatiable Government And Other Old-Right Commentaries 1923-1950,
Liberty Cap Press, 2005. Terrific collection of vintage pieces
from Garet Garrett, the grand old man of the "Old Right."

Arthur A. Ekirch,
Jr., Ideologies and Utopias: The Impact of the New Deal on American
Thought, Quadrangle Books, 1969. A masterful interpretative
study of the impact FDR's New Deal had on America and the World.

Arthur A. Ekirch,
Jr., The Decline of American Liberalism, Atheneum, 1971.
Ekirch's excellent historical overview charts the decline of
classical liberalism in the United States. His two chapters on the
New Deal are particularly illuminating.

John T. Flynn,
As We Go Marching, Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1944.
John T. Flynn's magnificent testament to how fascism came to
America disguised in democratic garb. Powerful, must reading.

Wolfgang Schivelbusch,
Three New Deals: Reflections of Roosevelt's America, Mussolini's
Italy, and Hitler's Germany, 1933-1939, Metropolitan Books,
2006. Award-winning historian Schivelbush compares Roosevelt's
New Deal welfare-warfare state with Mussolini's Corporate State
and Hitler's National Socialist Reich and finds many disturbing
things in common in theory and practice. Excellent companion to
the Flynn book above and the Best book below.

Gary Dean Best,
The Retreat From Liberalism: Collectivists Versus Progressives
in the New Deal, Praeger Publishers, 2002. FDR's
retreat from liberalism towards collectivism alienated many old-time
progressive reformers.

Raoul E. Desvernine,
Democratic Despotism, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1936. Contemporary
critique of New Deal collectivism, comparing it with Fascism (Italy),
Nazism (Germany), Sovietism (the Soviet Union), and Kamalism (Turkey).

Justus D. Doenecke,
The New Deal and Its Critics, Krieger Publishing Company,
2003. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was not universally beloved and
esteemed as the Third Person of the Trinity. Here's why.

Walter Karp,
Indispensable Enemies: The Politics of Misrule in America, Franklin
Square Press, 1993. Compare Walter Karp's engaging discussion
of the motives behind FDR's nefarious scheme to pack the Supreme
Court with supporters of his New Deal with that of Robert Shogan,
Backlash: The Killing of the New Deal. Did Roosevelt deliberately
create his own "backlash" and opposition to his social-engineering
programs?

Barton J. Bernstein,
Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, Vintage
Books, 1969. A New Left anthology on U. S. history. See especially,
Bernstein, "The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of
Liberal Reform," and contrast it with the analysis of Garet
Garett in his essay, "The Revolution Was," found in The
People's Pottage above.

J. C. Furnas,
Stormy Weather: Crosslights on the Nineteen Thirties: An Informal
Social History of the United States 1929-1941, G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1977. Fascinating and sweeping account of the social
history of the 1930s. Much here not found in other accounts.

Curtis B. Dall,
FDR: My Exploited Father-In Law, Christian Crusade Publications,
1967. Roosevelt's former son-in-law spills the beans in this
gossipy classic of invective and revelation.

Byron Hunt,
From Alphabet Soup to W. P. A. Nuts, The Hudler Press, 1939.
A very amusing satire of the multitude of "alphabet agencies"
created by FDR's New Deal.

Emanuel M.
Josephson, The Strange Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt: A History
of the Roosevelt-Delano Dynasty – America's Royal Family, Chedney
Press, 1948. A quirky curiosity. Did FDR really die on April 12,
1945, or was that his mysterious double?

6. The Plot
To Overthrow FDR.

Murray N. Rothbard,
A History of Money and Banking in the United States: The Colonial
Era to World War II. Rothbard provides the fascinating background
to the fierce internecine warfare between the elite Morgan and Rockefeller/Kuhn,
Loeb/Harriman financial blocs central to the anti-FDR Wall Street
plot exposed by Smedley Darlington Butler discussed below. The New
Deal was an alliance of major financial forces against the reigning
empire of the House of Morgan. When FDR took office he took America
off the Gold Standard. He launched the vicious Pecora Congressional
hearings against the Chase National Bank (previously controlled
by the Morgans and seized in a coup by Rockefeller kinsman Winthrop
Aldrich). Finally the New Deal enacted the Glass-Steagall Act of
1933, specific legislation aimed directly at the heart of the Morgans,
by separating investment banking from commercial banking. (See Alexander
Tabarrok, "The Separation of Commercial and Investment Banking:
The Morgans vs. the Rockefellers," Quarterly Journal of
Austrian Economics, Vol. 1, Number 1. Online at Mises.org.)
The Morgans and their corporate allies, such as the DuPonts, sought
revenge.

Jules Archer,
The Plot To Seize The White House, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.,
2007. One of the most important books you will ever read.
It tells the shocking story of how former Marine Major General Smedley
Darlington Butler was the savior of our Republic from a fascist
coup d'etat by Wall Street plutocratic militarists in the early
1930s. The plotters included key elements from the Morgan and DuPont
financial bloc.

The Plot
To Overthrow FDR, The History Channel, 2000. Excellent video
based on Jules Archer's brilliant book, The Plot To Seize The
White House, details the Wall Street/American Legion coup against
FDR heroically exposed by Smedley D. Butler. Author Jules Archer
is featured in this History Channel documentary as the major historical
expert on this true conspiracy.

Hans Schmidt,
Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions
of American Military History, University Press of Kentucky,
1998. More in the incredible saga of Smedley D. Butler, twice
awarded the Medal of Honor, who saved our nation from a 1930s fascist
coup d'etat, and spoke out against American imperial adventurism.
Schmidt's fine biography has much richness and detail not found
in other volumes on Butler, and places him in the historical context
of his times.

Antony C. Sutton,
Wall Street and FDR, Arlington House Publishers, 1975. Sutton
provides an alternative perspective on the attempted Wall Street
coup. Was the Wall Street-connected Franklin Roosevelt an acquiescent
participant in this domestic fascist conspiracy? Was he witting
or unwilling to go along with the plotters?

George Seldes,
Facts and Fascism, In Fact Publications, 1943. Investigative
journalist George Seldes was one of the few courageous reporters
to continue to uncover the shocking story of the Wall Street plot
against FDR. Seldes names names, dates, and details of the powerful
men who pushed for a corporatist fascist state in America.

Charles Higham,
Trading With the Enemy: An Expose' of the Nazi-American Money
Plot 1933-1949, Delacorte Press, 1983. Excellent reference work
on American corporate/banking cooperation with Nazi Germany before
and during WWII. Higham discusses the Wall Street plot against FDR
exposed by Butler.

Paul Dickson,
The Bonus Army: An American Epic, Walker & Company, 2004.
Smedley Butler was a great supporter and champion of the Bonus
Marchers and was beloved by these forgotten veterans of the Great
War. That is why he was singled out by the plotters to organize
and lead an army in the coup attempt. Here is the Bonus Marchers'
little-known story and how it impacted America.

Smedley Darlington
Butler, War Is A Racket, Roundtable Press, 1935. As
with George Washington, Smedley D. Butler was "first in war,
first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
Here Butler candidly and courageously speaks out against militarism
and the horror of war.

7. The Red
Decade.

Eugene Lyons’
classic work, The Red Decade, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1941,
gave a name to this era. Since the fall of Communism in Eastern
Europe and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a new historiography
has emerged that has relied on Soviet archival primary sources and
declassified American decrypted documents not available to previous
generations of researchers.

We now know
Roosevelt's New Deal was indeed a hotbed for hundred of spies for
the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s. The Communist Party
of the United States was a ripe recruiting ground for espionage,
from the top leadership cadre down to the rank and file Party membership.
Courageous Americans who broke with the Party, such as former CPUSA
General Secretary Benjamin Gitlow, author of The Whole of Their
Lives: Communism in America: A Personal History and Intimate Portrayal
of Its Leaders, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948, have been vindicated
in their warnings to the American people of this Trojan Horse within
our country.

Some of the
more notable scholarly works which have documented these facts include:
Harvey Klehr, John Earl Hayes and Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, The
Secret World of American Communism, Yale University Press, 1995;
Harvey Klehr, John Earl Hayes and Kyrill M. Anderson, The Soviet
World of American Communism, Yale University Press, 1998; Allen
Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage
in America — The Stalin Era, Random House, 1999; John Earl Hayes
and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America,
Yale University Press, 1999; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel,
The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors,
Regnery Publishing, 2000; Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel,
Bombshell: The Secret Story of America's Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy,
Crown, 1997; and Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The
Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Basic Books,
1999.

An excellent
paper summarizing this voluminous research was delivered at the
u2018International Communism and Espionage' session, European Social
Science History Conference, March 2006, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,
by John Earl Hayes and Harvey Klehr. It was entitled, "The
Historiography of Soviet Espionage and American Communism: from
Separate to Converging Paths." It is available online.

The shocking
new revelations of factual evidence unearthed by these researchers
has not always been welcomed in the larger scholarly community.
Two of the most intrepid of these historians, John Earl Hayes and
Harvey Klehr, have documented this on-going Battle of the Books
in their celebrated, definitive work, In Denial: Historians,
Communism & Espionage, Encounter Books, 2003.

For various
reasons outlined in their book, many members of the academy have
not let go of Cold War mythology and ideological distortions, and
have actively sought to deny the new truths that emerged from these
clandestine cloisters and dispute the documentary record. They see
controversy where none should exist. Refusing to believe that a
new post-Cold War historiographic paradigm has emerged, they hold
fast to an outdated interpretative status quo.

One of the
most disturbing and challenging books to this status quo is Stephen
Koch, Double Lives: Spies and Writers in the Secret Soviet War
of Ideas Against the West, The Free Press/Macmillian, Inc.,
1994 (republished as Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Muzenberg and
the Seduction of the Intellectuals, Enigma Books, 2004).

Professor Koch
meticulously details the manipulation by the Soviets' master propagandist
Willi Munzenberg of thousands of European and American progressive
intellectuals in the inner-war period of the 1920s and 1930s by
his vast publishing network and interlocking front organizations
under the covert direction of the Communist International (Comintern)
and the Soviet secret services of the NKVD and the GRU. He particularly
concentrates upon the intellectual elite that fell under Munzenberg's
sway in this cultural war against the West. This includes such persons
as Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Andre' Malraux, Andre' Gide,
Pablo Picasso, Dorothy Parker, George Grosz, Lincoln Steffens, John
Dos Passos, Bertolt Brecht, Lillian Hellman, Dashiell Hammett and
Sidney and Beatrice Webb.

This volume
shatters myth after historical myth of this critical period.

Munzenberg,
Koch states, "developed what may well be the leading moral
illusion of the twentieth century: the notion that in the modern
age the principal arena of the moral life, the true realm of good
and evil, is political." The notion that — the ethical
is the political — and that the highest form of ethical expression
was "anti-fascism," — with the Soviet Union as the publicly-identified,
ideologically most dedicated opponent of fascism, thus holding the
moral high ground. This myth was actually built upon the basest
of lies.

As Koch demonstrates,
from the earliest days of the National Socialist regime in Germany,
beginning with the Reichstag Fire less than a month after Hitler
became Chancellor, a sinister covert relationship between Nazi secret
intelligence and their Soviet counterpart existed.

This clandestine
cooperation continued throughout the decade. Hitler's massacre of
Ernst Rohm and his S. A. leadership in the Night of the Long Knives.
Stalin's terror purge of CPSU party members, feckless intellectuals,
military officers (most notably Field Marshal Tukhachevsky's betrayal
by documents forged in a Gestapo laboratory), and the murder of
tens of millions of ordinary Soviet citizens, reaching its culmination
in the Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression Pact of August, 1939. Publicly
the Soviet Union and their international Popular Front network (of
what were secretly designated "useful idiots" or "Innocents'
Clubs") preached "anti-fascism." Covertly Stalin
sought accommodation, appeasement, and eventual alliance with Hitler.

Besides fascinating
details dealing with the duplicitous Reichstag Fire trials, the
Cambridge Five British espionage scandal, the Spanish Civil War
as an international component to Stalin's Great Terror, and finally
Muzenberg's own mysterious murder, one of the most intriguing aspects
of Koch's study involves the use of women espionage agents.

"Many
of the u2018Muzenberg-men' were women. The Russian writer and historian
Nina Berberova writes with astringent authority about a cohort of
agents or near-agents, the women whom she calls the u2018Ladies of the
Kremlin." These were women who became influential figures in
European and American intellectual life partly on their own, but
above all through the men in their lives. The men, most often, were
famous writers, u2018spokesmen for the West,' Meanwhile, the consorts
whom they most trusted were guided by the Soviet services.

"Leading
this list were two members of the minor Russian aristocracy: the
Baroness Moura Budberg, who was mistress to both Maxim Gorky and
H. G. Wells, and the Princess Maria Pavlova Koudachova. Moura Budberg's
links to the Soviets were shadowy, and remained secret for decades,
until they were at last exposed by the Russian historian Arkady
Vaksberg in his 1997 book, The Gorky Secret. We have more certain
knowledge about the Princess Koudachova, who first became secretary,
later mistress, wife, and at last widow to the once enormously celebrated
pacifist novelist Romain Rolland.

"Maria
Pavlova Koudachova was an agent directly under Soviet secret service
control. There is some questionable evidence to suggest that she
was trained and assigned to Rolland's life even before she left
Russia after the Revolution. . . That she was a secret service operative,
however, and one expressly planted in Rolland's life, cannot be
doubted. Babette Gross (common-law wife of Willi Munzenberg) put
it to me plainly in the summer of 1989. u2018She was an apparatchik,'
she said flatly. u2018And she ran him.'" (Koch, page 28).

Koch proceeds
to discuss other women deep within the Communist apparat, such as
the American Ella Winter, and their distinguished men of distinction.
In Winter's case, the men were pioneer muckraking journalist Lincoln
Steffens, and upon his death, Hollywood screenwriter Donald Ogden
Stewart, part of Hemingway's circle immortalized in The Sun Also
Rises. Stewart was the Academy Award-winning author of The Philadelphia
Story, and one of the highest-paid screenwriters of the day, notes
Kenneth Lloyd Billingsley in Hollywood Party: How Communism Seduced
the American Film Industry in the 1930s and 1940s, Crown Forum,
1998. He was also one of "the most vociferous guardians
of the Party line," especially through the vexatious days
of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (Billingsley, page 82).

Upon reading
these various accounts a pattern soon develops. The profiles were
remarkably similar. The men were all internationally known novelists,
artists, playwrights, etc. celebrated for their independence of
mind, their supposed integrity of spirit, but in actuality men who
were manipulated by their muses.

The technique
proved very successful in this inner war period.

There is no
reason to believe that the Communist intelligence services ceased
to use these agents of influence during the years of the Cold War.

"Yoko
Ono, phone your office."

8. Prelude
To War.

James J. Martin,
American Liberalism and World Politics 1931-1941: Liberalism's
Press and Spokesmen on the Road Back to War Between Mukden and Pearl
Harbor, Two Volumes, Devin-Adair, 1964. Dr. Harry Elmer Barnes
stated that "This book is unquestionably the most formidable
achievement of World War II Revisionism," while Dr. Murray
N. Rothbard observed:

"Professor
Martin's American Liberalism and World Politics, 1931-1941 is an
exhaustive study of the changes in liberal views toward war and
peace, and toward Europe and Asia, in the 1930’s, as reflected mainly
in the pages of the Nation and the New Republic. It
reveals to us the transformation of Liberal opinion from a policy
of peace and neutrality to one of intervention and war — and from
support of peaceful revision of the Versailles treaty to armed defense
of the status quo it had impaired.

"Here
is the record spread out for us to ponder today: of intellectuals
abandoning the path of peace and reason, to lead the American people
into an hysterical and disastrous crusade to obliterate foreign
social systems which these intellectuals found repugnant."

It has never
been more timely reading.

Charles Callan
Tansill, Back Door To War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 1933-1941,
Henry Regnery Company, 1952. Tansill's classic detailing the
diplomatic duplicity of FDR and Churchill in maneuvering the unsuspecting
American public into the Second World War.

Thomas E. Mahl,
Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United
States, 1939-1944, Brassey's, 1999. The shocking story of how
British intelligence, FDR, and America's Northeastern Anglophile
ruling elite engineered America's entrance into WWII.

Justus D. Doenecke,
Storm on the Horizon: The Challenge to American Intervention,
1939-1941, Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2000. The courageous
story of the gallant men and women who fought against FDR's duplicity
and deception concerning American intervention in the Second World
War.

Justus D. Doenecke,
In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940-1941
As Revealed in the Papers of the America First Committee, Hoover
Institution Press, 1990. In-depth scholarly examination of the AFC
papers relating to the fight against American participation in the
Second World War.

Bill Kauffman,
America First: Its History, Culture, and Politics, Prometheus
Books, 1995. A gem!

Wayne S. Cole,
America First: The Battle Against Intervention 1940-1941, Octagon
Books, 1971. The true story behind the dedicated men and women of
the America First Committee's crusade to battle the lies and subterfuge
in behind our intervention in WWII.

Michele Flynn
Stenehjem Gerber, An American First: John T. Flynn and the America
First Committee, Arlington House Publishers, 1976. Sound biographical
study of Flynn focusing upon his activities with the New York chapter
of the America First Committee.

John E. Moser,
Right Turn: John T. Flynn and the Transformation of American
Liberalism, New York University Press, 2005. A more comprehensive
biography of Flynn concentrating on his entire career as liberal
journalist and commentator.

Justin Raimondo,
Reclaiming the American Right: The Lost Legacy of the Conservative
Movement, Center for Libertarian Studies, 1993. Before it was
destroyed in the early 1950s by the CIA's phony "Conservatives,"
there was the anti-New Deal-Fair Deal "Old Right" coalition
of Americans opposed to the welfare-warfare state and proponents
of a non-interventionist foreign policy. This book tells their heroic
story.

Murray N. Rothbard,
"The Foreign Policy of the Old Right," Journal of Libertarian
Studies, Volume 2, Number 1, Pages 85-96, provides the most
concise summary of this important opposition movement against the
foreign policies of intervention, militarism, and war. Available
online at Mises.org.

James T. Patterson,
Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1972. Senator Robert A. Taft, son of President and Chief
Justice of the United States William H. Taft, was the leader of
the non-interventionist "Old Right" forces in the Congress.

Richard Norton
Smith, The Colonel: The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick,
1880-1955, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997. Colonel Robert McCormick's
Chicago Tribune was the commanding editorial voice of Midwestern
"Old Right" non-interventionism and opposition to the
New Deal-Fair Deal welfare-warfare state.

Garet Garrett,
Defend America First: The Antiwar Editorials of The Saturday
Evening Post, 1939-1942, The Caxton Press, 2003. Classic antiwar
editorials from The Saturday Evening Post, one of America's
most widely read publications, by the brilliant "Old Right"
defender of liberty, Garet Garrett.

Harry Elmer
Barnes, editor, Perpetual War For Perpetual Peace: A Critical
Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and
Its Aftermath. The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1953. One of the first
major WWII revisionist books to penetrate the Establishment's "historical
blackout," with essays by William Henry Chamberlain, Percy
L. Greaves, Jr., George A. Lundberg, George Morgenstern, William
L. Neumann, Frederic R. Sanborn, and Charles Callan Tansill.

Richard M.
Ebeling and Jacob G. Hornberger, editors, The Failure of America's
Wars, The Future of Freedom Foundation, 1996. One of the finest
collections of essays and reviews examining the consequences of
America's interventionist foreign policy in the 20th
century. The material concerning World War Two is particularly impressive..

Leonard P.
Liggio and James J. Martin, editors, Watershed of Empire: Essays
on New Deal Foreign Policy, Ralph Myles Publisher, 1976. Superb
collection of revisionist essays on New Deal foreign policy by Murray
N. Rothbard, Robert J. Bresler, Robert Freeman Smith, Lloyd C. Gardner,
Justus D. Doenecke, William L. Neumann, and James T. Patterson.

James J. Martin,
The Saga of Hog Island And Other Essays in Inconvenient History,
Ralph Myles Publisher, 1977. Fifty years of political assassinations,
the framing of Tokyo Rose, Mussolini and the Mafia, are only a few
of the topics covered in this unusual collection.

William Henry
Chamberlain, America's Second Crusade. Henry Regnery Company,
1950. FDR's deceptive path to intervention and war is charted in
this classic account.

Robert Stinnett,
Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor, The
Free Press, 1999. The incredible details of how, as Congresswoman
Clare Boothe Luce stated, "FDR lied us into war."

Charles A.
Beard, President Roosevelt and the Coming of the War, 1941: Appearance
and Realities, Yale University Press, 1948. America's most celebrated
historian, Charles Austin Beard, had his career destroyed because
of this book, and the unseasonable truths it revealed.

George Morgenstern,
Pearl Harbor: The Story of the Secret War, Devin-Adair, 1947.
Pioneer revisionist investigation remains very informative and on-target.

John Toland,
Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath, Berkley, 1986. Toland's
best-seller helped inspire the superb BBC documentary film, Sacrifice
at Pearl Harbor. Watch it instead of the atrocious, ahistorical
Ben Affleck feature film, Pearl Harbor.

Thomas E. Woods,
Jr., The Politically Incorrect Guide To American History, Regnery
Publishing, 2004. This celebrated New York Times best-seller
has marvelous chapters on the Great Depression, the New Deal, Communist
apologists and espionage, and the approach and consequences of the
Second World War.

9. World
War Two.

There are thousands
of books which focus upon the Second World War. Here are thirteen
that are particularly notable:

Thomas J. Fleming,
The New Dealers' War: FDR and the War Within World War II, Basic
Books, 2001. Fleming lays bare the corrupting mendacity of the FDR
of legend and textbooks.

Paul Fussell,
Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War,
Oxford University Press, 1990. Fussell's brilliant, earthy account
of the lives of everyday soldiers in WWII is vastly superior to
the shallow pap of Tom Brokaw's The Greatest Generation.

John V. Denson,
editor, The Costs of War: America's Pyrrhic Victories, Transaction
Publishers, 1999. The savagery of war and its apologists exposed!
One of the most important books published in the past thirty years.

Michael Burleigh,
The Third Reich: A New History, Hill and Wang, 2000. In the
grand tradition of Eric Voegelin, Burleigh has written our generations
most bold and extraordinary history of the aggressive imperialism,
malignant racism, and base criminality of the Nazis.

David S. Wyman,
The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, Pantheon
Books, 1984. As a history teacher I have discovered that one of
the most enduring myths of younger Americans not versed in the history
of their country preceding their birth, is that the United States
entered the Second World War in order to save the Jews of Europe.
In fact, the very opposite was the case. The government deliberately
chose not to save the Jews until it was much too late. After
FDR's callous immigration authorities illegally obstructed and surreptitiously
slammed the door to freedom for vast numbers of potential refugees,
his administration continued its policy of deliberate betrayal of
the millions of European Jews in Hitler's death camps until the
"Final Solution" was almost finalized. A masterpiece in
meticulous scholarship, this brilliant book formed the basis for
the powerful PBS documentary, America and the Holocaust: Deceit
and Indifference.

Arthur D. Morse,
While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy, Random
House, 1968. This is an excellent companion volume to Wyman's The
Abandonment of the Jews, documenting the acquiescence and complicity
of the Roosevelt administration in the Holocaust.

Michi Weglyn,
Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration
Camps, University of Washington Press, 1996. FDR's imprisonment
of persons of Japanese heritage was the greatest wholesale violation
of civil liberties since slavery and the Trail of Tears.

Patrick Washburn,
A Question of Sedition: The Federal Governments's Investigation
of the Black Press During World War II, Oxford University Press,
1986. Believing the Black community was a seedbed of pro-Japanese
treason, this book tells of FDR's shameful but little-known inquisition
and racist persecution of African-American journalists during WWII.

Maximilian
St. George and Laurence Dennis, Trial on Trial: The Great Sedition
Trial of 1944, National Civil Rights Committee, 1946. In an
effort to destroy his domestic enemies and critics, FDR instigated
the Great Sedition Trial of 1944. It was a disastrous and embarrassing
failure.

Benjamin Colby,
u2018Twas a Famous Victory: Deception and Propaganda in the War With
Germany, Arlington House Publishers, 1974. Sobering revisionist
expose' of Allied wartime lies, cover-ups, vindictiveness, and propaganda.

Anthony Kubek,
How the Far East Was Lost: American Policy and the Creation of
Communist China, 1941-1949, Henry Regnery Company, 1963. Professor
Kubek's comprehensive, incisive analysis of the American foreign
policy debacle in Asia is a modern classic. Although written in
1963 at the height of the Cold War, it has an unsettling relevance
to the stultifying quagmire we find our nation bogged down in today
in the Middle East.

Dr. Kubek keenly
observes:

"Recent
decades have been characterized by retreat from the liberal ideal
of the freedom of man. Retreat to the debilitating habit of the
ages — magnification of the State and a consequent shrinking of
man — has been all too evident. This reactionary reversal of the
most promising social and political endeavor in history has characterized
itself by the customary devices of oppression: private affairs of
citizens encompassed by mounting taxes, controls, and interference;
military conscription; perpetual involvement in foreign interventionism
and war. Precisely such conditions impelled a hardy people of European
stock to settle the New World and to establish therein a government
denied the powers to reinstitute the baneful practices from which
these people had fled.

"The
doctrines of u2018collective security' and u2018indivisible peace' are those
of Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov. These entangling doctrines
are antithetical to the ideas of Washington, Madison, Jefferson,
and Monroe, which permitted flexibility in the matter of national
conduct and enabled the dictate of peaceableness, honor, and principled
reason to be followed. Committed to a libertarian and pacific course,
America's conduct among the nations of the world could, consistent
with her liberal ideal, command unsought respect and influence.
Conversely, today's hollow preachments, belied by our practice,
garner the type of respect and influence customarily enjoyed by
a wealthy hypocrite." (Kubek, pages 439-440)

George N. Crocker,
Roosevelt's Road To Russia, Henry Regnery Company, 1959.
This classic examines the sordid partnership of "Uncle Joe"
Stalin and Franklin "Duplicitous" Roosevelt in prosecuting
World War II. After recent revelations of the extent of Soviet espionage
networks at work in the United States during the New Deal, this
study is even more crucial to understand and place within the context
of the time. An excellent companion volume to Crocker, is Robert
A. Nisbet, Roosevelt and Stalin: The Failed Courtship, Henry
Regnery Company, 1989.

10. Conclusion.

The distinguished
jurist and historian John V. Denson observes in his book, A Century
of War: Lincoln, Wilson, And Roosevelt, Ludwig von Mises Institute,
2006:

"A
huge monument has been erected in Washington, D. C., to celebrate
the u2018greatness' of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On the monument
s a quotation from Roosevelt — u2018I hate war' — indicating falsely
to the public that he was a president who sought peace rather than
war. It is an example of false propaganda that is being perpetrated
upon the American people. We learn from the investigation of the
Pearl Harbor matter that after the attack ended, some of the crew
of the battleship Oklahoma were still alive and trapped inside the
hull of the partially sunken ship. The survivors outside could hear
the trapped men knocking against the hull with metal objects desperately
seeking rescue, but no rescue was possible. A recording should be
made to duplicate their desperate sounds and have it played every
hour at the Roosevelt Memorial to remind Americans of the treachery
of their commander-in-chief." (Denson, page196)

August
1, 2007

Charles
A. Burris [send him mail]
is a history instructor in an American high school.

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