If you have read the Screwtape
Letters by C.S. Lewis, you know that the Devil is an expert in
turning good impulses toward evil ends, and in leading people to
misapply virtues in ways that serve the cause of evil.
Well, so it is with the state. In every age, it takes the
intellectual and political fashions alive in the culture, and turns
them toward power for itself, money for itself, authority and affection
for itself. The end is always and everywhere the same and as
predictable as the tides. However, the means the state uses to achieve
this end are forever changing in ways that surprise us.
This tendency takes peculiar turns in the course of
Republican administrations, when the rhetoric of freedom, free markets,
and limited government is used for the paradoxical purpose of expanding
Let us begin with the most obvious point.
Most people are ready to concede that defense is one function
that government should provide. The first act of a Republican
administration is to vastly expand military spending, always with the
assumption that unless hundreds of billions more is spent, the country
will be left undefended. When Republicans are running the show, it
seems that there is no limit to how far this racket can be carried. We
proceed as if the need to drink means that we should shove the water
hose down our throat.
At the height of World War II, before spending plummeted
after the war ended, the federal government spent less than $90 billion
on defense, which was the same spent as late as 1961. Today it spends
five times that amount in current dollars. Might the excuse of defense
serve as a convenient way to slather money on military contractors and
to otherwise feed the friends of the government?
So it is with homeland security. For decades, people on the
political right have complained that money for defense is being spent
on far-flung missions overseas and to subsidize the defense budgets of
friendly foreign governments. The left has long brought attention to
the subsidies given to authoritarian regimes. And so how does the state
absorb these energetic movements? With new programs to provide
“homeland security” – more power for the state, but with an even
The example of how the cultural conservatives are being
absorbed is especially egregious. For decades, conservatives complained
that government was waging a war on families by taxing marriage,
punishing savings, subsidizing anti-family political movements, and
promoting contraception, sex education, and abortion, and the like. And
yet, if you look at the pro-family movement today, it is all about big
government: a federal marriage amendment, ridiculous family programs at
the federal level, bureaucratic intervention into family life, and
manipulation of American families for Republican purposes.
The pro-family movement used to be plausibly pro-liberty,
especially given that the family predates government, exists in a state
of anarchy, and is foundational for civilization. But leave it to
politics to convert a pro-family movement into one that endorses
statism of every sort. It may yet support the state forcing us into
associations of which it approves while forbidding all others. That way
lies corruption of the worst sort.
The same is true of religion. From the 1970 to the 1990s,
religious people had the general sense that the government was against
them, attempting to tax their churches, forbidding them from making
public expressions of their faith, and funding anti-religious
propaganda. Then the Bush administration gets control, and what
happens? The government is funding religious charities, using religion
to justify its foreign policy, courting certain religious groups for
votes and support, and doing its best to weave the American faith into
the fabric of the American state.
Whereas the religious right once had just complaints against
the government, and an agenda to get the state’s hand out of their
churches, the opposite now seems true. The state has enlisted the
religious right in a cause that will only lead to more government power
over society and economy and the world in general. Here again, we see
how the state can turn all movements to its own purposes.
In the last 60 years, the energies of free-market
intellectuals have been spent on debunking the need for the social
welfare state. But these energies are now being used to expand rather
than shrink the state. Consider the cry to “privatize” Social Security.
It uses the good work of many great thinkers to debunk a bad system, so
that it can be recreated with a wholly new system of forced savings
that could end up worse than the original.
The anti-Social Security movement that has existed since the
1930s is being re-channeled into a pro-forced savings movement. A
further tragedy: all the efforts of the past to debunk Social Security
now risk being discredited when this new program turns out to be wildly
expensive, terribly coercive, dangerous to the independence of capital
markets, and ultimately fruitless for workers who put their hopes in
it. But meanwhile, the energies of the anti-Social Security movement
will have been spent.
Education is another area. In the 1970s and 80s, a movement
grew among conservative intellectuals and the general public against
the dumbing down of curricula in public school. As a result of the
collectivism at the heart of centrally controlled public schooling,
standards were lowered to the extent that everyone was seen as above
average. It was this movement that led to demands for the abolition of
the Department of Education and to the rise of home schooling and the
flourishing of alternative schools.
But these days, the movement has been diverted and all its
energies put not into tearing down public schools but expanding the
state. The voucher program favors federal payments to private schools,
which will nationalize an industry and end up making it share in the
problems of the public schools. The movement for standards has led to
“No Child Left Behind” and regimentation of all schools by Washington,
DC. The Department of Education has turned its energies to feeding
conservative intellectuals and browbeating everyone into a general
“back to basics” movement.
Even homeschooling has not escaped corruption, as the
nation’s leading college for homeschooled kids works to place smart,
decent kids in the worst imaginable place: at the heart of the
executive branch of government, and even the CIA.
The tragedy just overwhelms you. These kids have studied hard
for many years to prepare themselves to achieve greatness, with moms
and dads making enormous sacrifices. So, under the belief that
greatness equals power, these kids are being sent to serve in the state
apparatus to learn the main practices that government teaches its
drones: to lie, deceive, manipulate, and abuse, without feeling any
pangs of conscience. This can turn a good person into a lifetime cynic.
The list goes on. The anti-tax
movement becomes a tax reform movement that ends up making government
more expensive, the movement against government bureaucracy becomes a
movement for contracting out and putting more people on the payroll,
the slogan of “America First” is perverted into a call for
protectionism, and so on.
How to avoid the trap? How does any political movement that
begins by being opposed to the state avoid being absorbed by the state?
The most crucial step is to decide what you are for and what you are
against from the very outset. It is not enough to be against a
particular government program or for a particular institution such as
the family. What we need is a comprehensive ideology of liberty to
displace the comprehensive ideology of statism – with no
In the struggle
against power, the battle is too important to risk absorption by the
enemy. There are no proxies for genuine liberty. Using rhetorical
maneuvers to disguise the movement for freedom as something else is
dangerous business indeed.