Americans have never heard of the prisoner of war camps in the United
States during World War II. Hans Sennholz, a Luftwaffe
pilot and later a Misesian economist, worked on a prisoner-run
farm in Arkansas after he had been shot down by British anti-aircraft
fire in North Africa. They sent him from Britain through Canada
to the West Coast and then to Arkansas.
Most estimates that I have seen place the number of prisoners of
war in the U.S. in the range of 50,000 to 70,000, but one reputable
and detailed Website says it was
than 150,000 men arrived after the surrender of Gen. Erwin Rommel’s
Afrika Korps in April 1943, followed by an average of 20,000 new
POWs a month. From the Normandy invasion in June 1944 through
December 30,000 prisoners a month arrived; for the last few months
of the war 60,000 were arriving each month. When the war was over,
there were 425,000 enemy prisoners in 511 main and branch camps
throughout the United States.
This is a good example of history that never gets to the general
public. This is a little-known and long-forgotten story, but it
is not shocking.
What follows is shocking. I begin with low-level shock.
Most Americans know about the concentration camp system that the
United States created for Japanese residents of the West Coast.
There were 120,000 of these internees in a dozen camps, mostly in
the mountain states, but with two camps in eastern Arkansas. A few
Americans know that the FBI’s J. Edgar Hoover had opposed these
mass arrests. Fewer still know of the forced sale of everything
these people owned at substantial discounts. They were only allowed
to bring into the camps what they could carry in their arms in one
trip. But until this year, only a handful of Japanese-Americans
knew that in 1944, the U.S. government drafted the young men housed
in these camps, and about 300 refused to be inducted. They said
they were prisoners who were not being treated as citizens, which
they were. So, some of them were put in jail for draft resistance,
and the others became pariahs in the camps. The other Japanese internees
regarded them as traitors. This story became public knowledge only
this year, in law professor Eric Muller’s book, Free
to Die for Their Country (University of Chicago Press, 2001).
You can get
chapter one on the Web.
Western Hemisphere Kidnap Camps
The following story would be a great case study for Memory Hole
101 (second semester). I stumbled onto it about three years ago.
It was on the Website of a local affiliate of NBC television. That
Web page is long gone, but because of www.google.com, I was able
to track down other pages in a few minutes. I used these search
terms: Japanese, Germans, Peru, World War II, Texas, camps. Of course,
had I not found that NBC affiliate site three years ago, I never
would have known which search terms to use. I never would have known
about this story. Prepare yourself for a shock. This is from the
Handbook of Texas Website. Its title is
“World War II Internment Camps.” And what remarkable camps
they were! You will find no reference to these camps in any textbook
on U.S. history, I guarantee you.
many Americans are aware of the World War II imprisonment of West
Coast Japanese Americans in relocation centers, few know of the
smaller internment camps operated by the Immigration and Naturalization
Service. Under the authority of the Department of Justice, the
INS directed about twenty such facilities. Texas had three of
them, located at Seagoville, Kenedy, and Crystal City. Prisoners
included Japanese Americans arrested by the FBI, members of Axis
nationalities residing in Latin-American countries, and Axis sailors
arrested in American ports after the attack on Pearl Harbor. About
3,000 Japanese, Germans, and Italians from Latin America were
deported to the United States, and most of them were placed in
the Texas internment camps. Twelve Latin-American countries gave
the United States Department of State custody of the Axis nationals.
Eighty percent of the prisoners were from Peru, and about 70 percent
were Japanese. The official reasons for the deportations were
to secure the Western Hemisphere from internal sabotage and to
provide bartering pawns for exchange of American citizens captured
by Japan. However, the Axis nationals were often deported arbitrarily
as a result of racial prejudice and because they provided economic
competition for the other Latin Americans, not because they were
a security threat. Eventually, very few Japanese ever saw Latin
America again, although some Germans and Italians were returned
to their Latin American homes. The majority of Texas internment-camp
prisoners were Axis nationals from Latin America. . . .
In addition, prisoners were taken to Crystal City from other INS
internment camps in Hawaii and Alaska (not states at the time),
the United States, Puerto Rico, the West Indies, and South and
Central American countries. . . .
As we shall see, there is some debate about the numbers of these
victims of American-supervised international kidnapping. Was it
3,000, total? Or were there more? I think there were far more, for
reasons that you will soon see. In any case, what you have read
so far is a whitewashed version of the story. It gets worse —
much, much worse.
Add one word to the Google search list: “exchanged.” Again, had
I not found that NBC affiliate site, I would not have known to use
this term. This brought me to a site run by the Freedom of Information
Times. This revealing site specializes in World War II internment
of German American civilians.
Here, we read the grim reality regarding what other use these kidnapped
Latin Americans had for the American government. I will bet that
nothing that you have ever read mentioned this legacy of Roosevelt’s New
During the hearings before the U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation
and Internment of Civilians, Edward J. Ennis, the Director of
the Alien Enemy Control during World War II, on November 3, 1981
Macbeth [a member of the Commission]: Did you have any experience
with the internment of enemy aliens who were outside of the
Mr. Ennis: Oh yes, we had two programs…Now the other program
was taking alien enemies from other countries in South America…If
we couldn’t get the [Latin American] countries to intern them
we had to transmit them to the United States for internment…It
was an aborted program, I don’t think it accomplished anything.
It had a security purpose to do in these countries [Latin America]
what we were doing in the United States, about 5,000 German
aliens were interned, and a few hundred German aliens in Cuba
and in other countries in South America. But it didn’t work
very well. [Source: pp.157-159, Testimony of Edward J. Ennis
before the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of
Civilians on November 3, 1981, R.G. 220. . . .
The Latin Americans of German ancestry who [about 5,000] were
brought to this country by the United States were incarcerated
in several camps, most were in either of the following camps:
Crystal City, Texas; Seagoville, Texas; Camp Kenedy, Texas; Fort
Lincoln, Bismarck, North Dakota; and Ellis Island, New York Harbor,
Hundreds of the interned Latin Americans, many of whom were, by
birthright, citizens of one of the republics, were exchanged for
persons of the Americas held by the Third Reich, i.e., they were
deported to Germany.
Stephen Fox, “The Deportation of Latin American Germans, 1941-47:
Fresh Legs for Mr. Monroe’s Doctrine,” Yearbook of German-American
Studies 32 (1997): 117-42.
Prior to the exchange, lists of internees in the U.S., including
the names of German-Jews, were provided to the authorities of
the Third Reich.
The State Department citations herein are included in their entirety
in Volume IV, The World War Two Experience of German-Americans
of German-Americans in the World Wars, Edited by: Don Heinrich
Tolzmann, K.G. Saur, Munich, 1995, pp. 1671-1674.
Got that, folks? The U.S. government went to the trouble of identifying
the kidnapped victims of Jewish German background, sent their names
to Hitler’s bureaucrats, knowing that these were “high priority
items,” and then shipped them off to Germany in exchange for Americans
who had been inside the Third Reich when Hitler declared War on
only other explanation is that American bureaucrats deliberately
identified the captive Jews in order that the Germans might be able
to keep out those Germans whom they really didn’t want. That’s the
country tis of thee, sweet land of liberty,” etc., etc.
Franklin Roosevelt’s Administration did many horrible things. This
is just one more example. Most of these things were covered up then,
and professional historians still do their best to cover them up
today, 56 years after FDR’s death.
For the New Deal-justifying liberals who write all of the American
history textbooks, seeing just isn’t believing. Facts like these
are dropped down the memory hole, where they are thought to belong.
Why don’t Jews know about this neglected aspect of American history?
Because they haven’t been told. Why not? Because most academic Jews
are political liberals, and their commitment to the Roosevelt Administration
has been greater than their commitment to historical accuracy. So,
politically conservative Jews don’t know the story.
Anyone who points out this sort of thing is dismissed by the Establishment
press and the Establishment academic community (guild) as a “conspiracy
nut.” I confess: guilty as charged.
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