the same definition, the overbuilding of industry beyond any probable
demand for the product represents devoured credit. Here the spirit
of aggrandizement acts as if it were a biological law, each separate
organization trying to outgrow all the others of its kind in the
industry of one country, and then that industry as a whole trying
to outgrow the competitive industry of another country, and this
going on with the benefit of more and more credit, until at last
– what is the problem? The problem is that so much credit,
that is to say labour, is trapped, frozen, locked up in the worlds'
industrial machine that people cannot afford to buy the whole of
its product at prices which will enable industry to pay interest
on its debt. This is perhaps the most involved form of pyramid that
human ingenuity has yet devised."
Garrett in Anatomy
of a Bubble, 1932
you every read a more nearly perfect description of the Telecom
industry seventy years on?
Governments to this point have been laughing, reaping the usual
benefits of an inflationary episode to pay down their debt in a
very New Millennium fashion.
time, as a result of the encouragement of a prolific expansion of
the global money supply, most of the rise in prices this last five
years has occurred in assets. This, by helping absorb the extra
money substitutes, coupled with the fortuitous firesale of goods
which resulted from the Asian credit implosion, kept product prices
relatively well-behaved – up until last year, at least – and so
allowed the fiction to be maintained for much longer than usual
that exploding levels of credit were acting as a benign influence,
rather than wreaking their age-old havoc upon the free market's
stock prices and heady appreciation in the real estate markets of
the West have made people feel wealthier (confused as most are in
the modern age between u2018money' and u2018wealth') and thus encouraged
them to embark on a consumptive binge which makes the Prodigal Son
look like Ebenezer Scrooge, boosting tax revenues in the process.
the stock Bubble itself has been of inordinate assistance in the
US, for one, with the unprecedented levels of stock turnover catching
a greater proportion of the notional profits in the capital gains
trap. Other exchequers have gratefully gathered in extra stamp duty
monies, a Tobin tax on you and me, rather than Soros and Robertson.
If you doubt this, pull up the monthly US federal budget receipts
chart and see how non-April months are on a smooth trend, while
April's year-end is on an exponential path.
European government has become rapacious with its extortion racket
over UMTS phone licences. Making over-eager Telco's compete in a
bidding system which would have made game theory pioneers Morgenstern
and von Neumann proud has extracted untold bounties from this multi-billion
winner's curse. Or, perhaps we should say, has generated a massive
down payment against any future default on the part of their victims
which might then require a socialization of the problem (read: a
return to plundering taxpayers directly).
and diverting returns from Techmania share holders to the public
fisc for a totally non-productive capital levy is one thing, degrading
the credit worthiness of the rest of the public's pension funds
by substituting junk for the now wildly-expensive remaining government
debt is another. Confiscation is what government is about, after
all. None of this would have been possible, however, without the
inflation-driven New Era hunger for the equities in the first place.
None of it would have been possible without the inflation- driven
availability of credit, enabling vast bond issues and even more
vast syndicated lending to finance this high bandwidth Canal Boom.
however, with Telco stocks leading the declines in most indices,
with their bonds becoming tainted with toxicity, the regulators
are looking askance at the exposure of the banking sector to this
welter of potential malinvestment.
rich indeed since central bank-sanctioned credit expansion has been
behind the whole process! But then Austrians know that business
depressions result from the banking authorities deciding to forestall
the potential hyperinflation, whose seeds they alone have sown,
by belatedly withdrawing the oxygen of easy money, thus asphyxiating
the boom and precipitating a crash instead.
FT says the financial stability chiefs have u2018launched inquiries'
into Telco lending, saying variously that matters are u2018of great
concern' because of the risks the banks are taking with one sector.
Others likened the concentration of debt to the run-up to the 1992
property crash and the 1998 hedge fund crisis, both of which caused
major problems for banks. Naturally, what they do not say is that
such a move, even if it does not stretch beyond u2018moral suasion'
(bullying), could easily trigger the very disaster they are supposedly
keen to avert.
banks could do without this. We have noted on www.capitalinsight.co.uk
that the US FDIC was expressing anxiety over the growing illiquidity
of commercial banks there, pointing out a loan:deposit ratio approaching
95% at larger institutions. In Europe, using the ECB monthly report
as a rough guide, for Euro-residents alone and stripping out interbank
transactions, loans:deposits stands at 128%. Total assets are a
lofty 18 times capital and reserves and loans to private, non-financial
corporations (roughly, C&I loans) alone are 2.8 times capital
and nearly 50% of non-MFI deposits. With real estate lending accounting
for another 34% of such deposits, the vulnerabilities are patent,
even without beginning to sweat over an equity portfolio equal to
some 76.5% of equity, 44% of it acquired in the last 18 months.
much for banks, but look at another little case of the-thigh-bone's
are a weather vane for the whole Tech fantasy. They need fibre optics
(JDSU et al). They need chips (INTC's pals) and handsets (NOK and
co). They need software (ORCL and the like), hardware (SUNW &
friends) and infrastructure (CSCO and its ilk). If they find financing
more difficult, much less impossible, these suppliers will be squeezed
(especially if current revenues are in Euros and billings in USD).
Moreover, heavy capital investment in Tech has been a feature of
much of the rest of industry, or so Mr. Greenspan keeps telling
us. Now correct us if we're wrong, but a major slowdown usually
impacts CapEx very heavily as cost-cutting takes over and projects
revealed to be sub-marginal by the end of the boom are postponed
or scaled back. Not much solace for Tech there, either.
and guess which sector has had Dollars, Euros and Yen in mind-boggling
amounts to spend in recent years on systems? That's right, the Bubble-blowers
themselves – Financials. Whether equipping Star Trek bridge dealing
rooms or launching online banking and stockbroking services, not
to mention retooling for the great Y2k hoax, a lot of revenue has
been derived from this source. Any impairment of the worth of banks
and brokers, or a dimming of their prospects, will see the shutters
slam down on the cashier's window, blocking off another channel
for Silicon Valley's finest, thus exacerbating the problems for
the bottom-line once again. Oh and so making the bank lending look
all the more intemperate! Round and round and round she goes and
where she stops nobody knows.
Sean Corrigan writes from London on the financial markets, and
edits the daily Capital Letter and the Website Capital